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Updated to: 11 September 2013

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Distinguishing features of the EIA/SEA system

The Environmental Protection Act (1994) brought EIA into the legal framework of Ghana. It introduced an EIA system which consists three levels of assessment: initial, preliminary and a full assessment of the environmental impacts. Apart from extensive experiences with Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Ghana has a relatively high level of experience with the application of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), particularly since 2002. Many capacity building activities have taken place in the framework of the Ghana Environmental Assessment Capacity Development Project (GeaCap phase 1, 1999-2001), the Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy 2002-2004 and the Ghana Environmental Assessment and Support Project 2006-2008.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the key agency responsible for implementation of EIA and SEA. It is the main decision-making authority during all stages of the EIA process.

Administrative system: relevant features

Legislative functions are vested in Parliament, which consists of a 230-member body, plus the Speaker. For a proposed regulation to become law, legislation must have the assent of the president. Ghana is a divided into 10 regions, subdivided into a total of 216 districts.

Relevant international conventions

Ghana has been a party to the Ramsar convention since 1988, and a party to the Convention on Biodiversity since 1994.

Convention websites

Country specific terms or acronyms

  • EIS = Environmental Impact Statement is referred to in the EIA profile of Ghana as the EIA report
  • EPA = Environmental Protection Agency
  • PEA = Preliminary Environmental Assessment
  • PER = Preliminary Environmental Report