EIA per country
Updated to: 25 February 2015Download as PDF
Country contact on EIA
Contact details for the country contact on EIA.
United Nations Environment Programme
National Environmental Protection Agency
Darulaman, Kabul, Afghanistan
History of EIA
Brief description of the history of the EIA system in the country, including when it was introduced and any major milestones in its development.
In December 2005, the Afghan cabinet approved an Draft Environmental Law that for the first time gave Afghanistan a legal tool for environmental management. The concept of EIA has been introduced in Afghanistan through this Environment Law. It was gazetted in early 2007 after it had been reviewed and amended. EIA regulations gazetted in 2008 further legally define the EIA process.
The National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) as the central EIA authority was established simultaneously to the EIA legal system. As it was expected that the NEPA in its starting phase lacks capacity, a flexible EIA system was developed that NEPA can implement in line with its existing capacity. Also the interim EIA system was directed to recognize the development needs in Afghanistan in a post-conflict timeframe. As part of the interim EIA system, a non-binding EIA policy was issued in 2007. Furthermore, Interim EIA regulations (2007) and administrative guidelines for the preparation of EIA were prepared by the NEPA.
In this interim EIA system, the responsibility for technical content remains with the proponent. As almost all proponents of EIA-subjected projects in Afghanistan are donors or donor-funded implementing agencies, it is hoped that such proponents will fulfill their obligations in this regard. Also, it is anticipated that the proponents will have a mentoring function (comparable to external experts in other EIA systems) as capacity building is the focus of many of the programmes of the donors. Proponents are bound by international best practice on EIA as the EIA regulations require. In due course, NEPA will take on more of a substantive role, as envisioned in the Environment Law and EIA policy (using the Board of Experts etc.). The UNEP has supported the NEPA throughout
this process of EIA policy development.
UNEP Post-conflict EA, 2003
Afghanistan Biodiversity, 2009
Year of introduction of EIA legislation
NB: this field is only meant for the world map. It is a hidden cell that is not published on the website. If available, mention the year when detailed national EIA regulations were issued. If such regulations do not exist and if EIA practice is base
Legal framework for EIA
Name of first enabling legislation that sets a framework for EIA.
The Environmental Law builds the framework for EIA. It introduced EIA into the legislation in Afghanistan and also established the National Environmental Protection Agency as its central authority. The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) assisted the development of the law.
Year of introduction of enabling law
Year when the enabling law for EIA was issued
The Environment Law was approved in 2005, then further amended and finally gazetted in 2007. It gives some provisions regarding the EIA process.
Approving authority of enabling law
Authority that approved the enabling law for EIA.
The Environmental Law was approved by the National Assembly.
Year of introduction of first national detailed regulation for EIA
Year when when the first national detailed regulation (procedural requirements) through which EIA was operationalized.
The first national regulations that operationalized EIA were the EIA regulations that were gazetted in 2008 by NEPA (Official Gazette No. 873). They built upon the Interim EIA regulations from 2007.
Environmental Impact assessment Policy
Approving authority of first national detailed regulation for EIA
The authority that approved the first national detailed regulation (procedural requirements) through which EIA was operationalized.
Recent updates and additions to the EIA legislation
Revisions of the EIA provisions in the enabling law or the national detailed EIA regulation (procedural requirements) are named. The year is listed, and the main changes since the first regulation are mentioned, if available. Also, additional EIA-re
The enabling law or the EIA regulations have not yet been updated. The regulations are, however, expected to be updated in the future when the capacities of the NEPA have been strengthened.
Sector specific procedures or regulations on EIA
Any existing sectoral procedural or content regulations are listed here, as well as the authority that issued each.
The minerals law (2010) requires an EIA, including a social impact assessment, in order to obtain the needed exploitation licenses.
The National Pollution Control and Management Policy (2008, Draft) further indicates that an approach to pollution control should be integrated in the EIA system. The National Development Strategy (2008) mentions EIA with respect to the following sectors: Urban projects, agriculture and rural development and transport. It is thus expected that the EIA will be further established in the different sector policies.
Any government issued guidelines on EIA (general, or sectoral) are listed here, as well as the authority that issued each. Describe the legal status of the guidelines.
The National Environmental Impact Policy issued in 2007 is a non-binding tool guiding the interim EIA system. Also, administrative guidelines for the preparation of Enviornmental Impact Assessments were issued in 2008.
The UNEP is supporting the NEPA to establish sector guidelines to guide the proponents. It is not confirmed if these sector guidelines have already been finalized.
Objective of EIA
The objective of EIA as stated in the above described legal basis.
The policy approach names the following objective for EIA: ‘To protect the environment and community well-being in Afghanistan, thereby assisting the progress of sustainable development'. Other objectives mentioned are to: incorporate environmental consideration into development decision making process; to anticipate and avoid, minimize or offset the adverse significant biophysical social and other relevant effects of development proposals; to protect the productivity and capacity of natural systems and the ecological processes which maintain their functions, and; to promote development that is sustainable and optimizes resource use and management opportunities.
Integrated approach executive summary and administrative guidelines (draft March) 2007.
Scope of EIA application
Describes which types of activities require EIA (public and/or private activities; national and/or foreign initiated project; or all such projects)
The EIA policy (2007) approach focuses on development activities by development agencies, but it states that once NEPA has developed skills in the art of EIA administration and enforcement it could extent its influence to encompass the private sector. The Environment law states that the EIA regulations apply to any person, ministry or national authority.
Exemptions from EIA application
Describes any (groups of) activities identified in the regulation that are exempted from the requirement to do EIA (e.g. military or emergency activities).
No categorical exemptions are formulated.
Institutional setting for EIA
Central EIA authority
Is there a central authority in charge of implementing EIA? Is it independent or linked to a higher body (e.g ministry)? What are its tasks related to EIA?
The National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) is the central EIA authority in Afghanistan. It was established in 2005 through the Draft of the Environmental Law as an independent agency to combat the environment. It has 34 sub-province offices. NEPAs mandate is to mainstream the environment into all national and sectoral initiatives and hence includes the advocating and overseeing EIAs of all major development projects. NEPA has a Division for Environment, Impact Assessment which is further divided in two departments, one for EIA and the other one for Sustainable Development. Article 9 of the Environmental Law (2008) specifically names the provision of environmental management services in the field of environmental assessment as one of the functions of NEPA.
The NEPA was established at the same time as the EIA process in Afghanistan. Hence, the capacity of NEPA to administer full EIA was considered to be limited at the start of EIA practice in Afghanistan. An interim EIA system was thus developed that limits the role of NEPA in this process accordingly. It determines that the obligation to meet international best practice lies with the proponent and that the NEPA's role is largely limited to ensure that the process that is outlined in the regulations is followed. In March 2010, NEPA underwent a major restructuring with significant changes to both its organizational and staffing structures.
Afghanistan Biodiversity 2009
Environment programme, 2012
UNEP programme annual report 2010
Other key (governmental) parties involved in EIA, and their roles
Lists other key parties (e.g. a review commission, knowledge institute) that have a role in many or all EIAs.
The EIA Law (2005) gives provisions for an EIA Board of Experts that reviews, assesses and considers applications and documents submitted by proponents for obtaining permits. It also makes technical recommendations on whether the permits should be issued or not, as well as on the conditions that should be attached to the permit. The Board is appointed by the General Director of the NEPA and is composed of not more than 8 members. Has it been established? The Law also provides for a Committee for Environmental Coordination, which among other functions, shall make recommendations to coordinate environmental activities including cooperation on EIA procedures.
The proponents (international donors) and UNEP experts are currently building NEPA's capacity to implement the EIA system.
Environmental Law 2007 article 10, 20.
Mandate for exemption of EIA obligation
Describes if there is a legal mandate for a competent authority to make exemptions of EIA obligation. And if yes, under which conditions (e.g. national security, disasters or no conditions/when deemed necessary).
NEPA may approve a project subject to EIA without requiring an EIA if it is convinced that the environmental impacts will not be significant and/or the proposed mitigation measures will be sufficient.
(De)centralisation of EIA mandates
Describes if EIA mandates are (de)centralised. Vertical decentralization refers to the extent to which the responsibility for EIA processes are delegated by the central government to the provincial or local authorities. Sectoral or horizontal decen
The EIA policy from 2007 determined that the provincial offices of the NEPA yet needed to be utilized i the EIA process. As a start for that, it was intended that they are fistly responsible for the distribution of the public disclosure of the proposed project. The NEPA headquarter is responsible for the remainder of the EIA related tasks until the system is functioning adequately. Once their capacity is increased, the role of the provincial offices of the NEPA will be defined further.
EIA policy 2007
Overview EIA procedure
Characterizes the overall EIA procedure. If relevant, interesting aspects of the EIA procedure are mentioned such as: which procedural steps are part of the EIA procedure? How are they linked to each other? Are there different levels of assessment di
The EIA process as defined in the EIA regulations (2008) includes a Screening, assessment, review and a decision-making process. Scoping and follow-up activities are advised, but not mandatory. In general, the EIA process in its interim state is recommended to follow international best practices. The outcome of the EIA process is the granting or rejecting of a Certificate of Compliance. The EIA policy (2007) provides flow charts on the overall EIA process and the different EIA stages.
The following main documents result from the EIA process: Screening report, EIS, Comprehensive mitigation plan, evt. Review document, Certificate of Compliance.
Screening requirement and authority
Describes if a formal screening decision required, and if so, which authority is responsible for this decision. Is this decision published?
Screening is required in Afghanistan. According to the Environmental Law, NEPA is the screening decision authority but receives recommendations from the EIA Board of Experts.
Describes the screening process: steps in screening, the stakeholders involved and outcomes of the process, status of screening advice of different stakeholders, etc. Also describes any prescribed methods for screening. If preliminary EIA's / light EIA's / Initial Environmental Evaluations (IEE) are done in this country and which criteria determine whether a preliminary or a full EIA is requested
The proponent should conduct a screening process and submit an application with a technical screening report to NEPA. The screening report should be consistent with international best practices and the technical guidelines for Screening, which are added to the EIA regulations (2008) in their Schedule 3. NEPA will then distribute a notice of public disclosure and thereafter NEPA will take a Screening decision. The NEPA then decides, if the information provided is sufficient and a Certificate of Compliance can be issued, if further information is requested, or if the applicant should do an EIA in order to obtain the Certificate of Compliance.
The Screening decision is taken on the basis of lists provided by the EIA regulations. They divide the activities into different impact categories:
• Category 1: activities likely to have significant adverse impacts
• Category 2: activities with potentially adverse impacts;
The lists are inclusive and uses tresholds that are based on initiative features and environmental parameters. Activities under category 1 or 2, any activity which is likely to have negative environmental impacts that is located in an environmentally sensitive area or other activities that are determined by the NEPA is a ‘prohibited activity’ and thus subject to EIA by the Environment Law (2007). If a proposed activity is listed as 'prohibited activity' (in EIA approach annex 1), a Certificate of Compliance is required for it before the activity can be undertaken.
EIA policy, environmetnal Law and guidelines
Provision for sensitive areas
Are specific requirements formulated for environmentally sensitive areas? (e.g. no minimum thresholds, full EIA instead of partial EIA)
Regulation 2(3) of the EIA regulations (2008) give some provisions for environmentally sensitive areas. Activities that are likely to have significant adverse effects on the environment of an area that has been determined by NEPA to be a environmentally sensitive area, are defined as prohibited activities and are thus subject to EIA.
Contents of the starting document
Describes the required content of the starting document (if any) that the proponent should submit to the competent authority for EIA screening. Mentions if the starting document is published.
The information that is to be supplied by the proponent in the application (screening report) is included in Schedule 3 of the EIA regulations (2008). They advise that information regarding the following issues should be provided: the applicant, the activity, the location of the activity, potential sources of impact, mitigation measures, public participation etc.
Maximum number of (working) days allowed between submission of the starting document and the screening decision.
The NEPA has 14 days after receiving a complete application to distribute the notice of public disclosure. Within 21 days of distribution the notice of public disclosure the NEPA than will take the screening decision. Thus within 35 days from when he had submitted the application, the proponent receives the decision of NEPA on whether an EIA has to be conducted.
EIA regulations (2008)
Is a formal scoping step required as part of the EIA process?
No provisions for scoping are given in Environment Law or the EIA regulations (2008). The non-binding EIA policy, however, does mention a Scoping stage.
Describes who carries main responsibility to undertake scoping and what the roles and responsibilities of the involved parties during the process are. Specifically, is there independent formulation and/or review of the scoping document, approval of the scoping document? Are any methods prescribed, e.g. participation, checklists. What guidance is provided?
The EIA policy defines a Scoping procedure. It states that the NEPA is responsible for the Scoping process with assistance by the Board of EIA Experts. According to the guidelines during the Scoping stage, the NEPA decides on the activities for which EIA was required (as determined in the Screening phase) if those activities can commence work already and what the EIA requirements for it are. There are three options:
- projects can require an EIA before works can be commenced
- project can be granted permission to commence works but thea are still requested to prepare an EIA report
- a permit is released with no further EIA requirements
Projects with most severe impacts and thus activities that fall under Category 1 as defined in the Screening phase are likely to not be given permission to commence works.
For those project for which an EIA report is required, NEPA provides the proponent with the Terms of Reference. Guidelines for scoping may be developed in the future, but sector specific guidelines are a higher priority.
Administrative guidelines for the preparation of Enviornmetnal Impact Assessments (draft March 2007) and EIA policy (2007)
Contents of the scoping document
Explains if there are there specific requirements for the content of the scoping document, and if so, what these are.
Proponents are guided by international best practices.
Assessment and reporting
Steps and roles of stakeholders in the assessment and status of the input of the stakeholders. Also sets out methods for assessment of the environmental impacts of the activity, if prescribed, and whether the assessment covers environmental, social, economic and/or transboundary effects.
No specific requirement on the assessment process are given. The proponents are responsible for the EIA study and the quality of the EIA reports. The assessment shall be done in accordance with international best practice.
Administrative guidelines for the preparation of Environmental Impact Assessments (draft March 2007) and EIA policy (2007)
Contents of the EIA report
Explains what should be contained in the EIA report. Specifies if a potential Environmental Management Plan is part of the EIA report or if it is a separate document that contributes to the EIA process.
The EIA report shall contains information on the activity:
- a full description of the activity and its need and desirability
- a description of the location and the environment of the activity;
- information on likely impacts and benefits;
- information on alternatives and their impacts;
- mitigation measures
- monitoring measures
- an identification of all involved parties;
- a description of the public participation process during the EIA process
- other information as required by NEPA.
Overview of the review process, including: steps in the process and roles of the stakeholders, status of the input of the stakeholders. Is the process open to public? Review method: internal review, external review, panel/commission (permanent or temporary), are the review results documented? Are the review criteria general or case by case? Are the review results documented? Is a potential review
The NEPA reviews the EIA reports. If it finds the submitted technical reports and information to be not in accordance with international best practice, the proponent will be adviced to submit a review document indicating the manner in which the applicant has addressed the concerns of the NEPA.
Describes if the EIA is checked by external parties, and if so to what extent these represent required disciplines/expertise. Also sets out if measures have been taken to ensure that reviewers are impartial?
Once in place, the Board of Experts will advice NEPA the review process. It is unclear if the Board of Experts is already established in practice.
National Environmental Management Act 107 of 1998 (Chapter 5 section 24I)
Number of (working) days for review of the EIA by the competent authority.
45 days from submission of the EIA report, it should be approved and a decision should be made on the issuance of the perrmit. If the EIA report is not approved and a review document has been submitted by the proponent, within 30 days a decision should be taken on whether the certificate of compliance will be issued or not.
Integration of EIA into decision-making
Describes what kind of decision-making processes the EIA is intended to support. We look specifically at the decision on EIA approval, and how this relates to envirionmental approval for the project, and other project approval decisions (permits) needed before a project can proceed. This category describes which decisions are influenced by EIA and how they are linked to each other.
Acceptance of the EIA report and issuance of the permit is an integrated decision taken by NEPA. By accepting the EIA report, NEPA issues the required permit simultaneously. The Certificate of Compliance gives authorisation for commencing works on the activity. The Certificate of Compliance is issued if:
- the applicant has complied with the procedural requirements for EIA;
- the submitted technical reports and information are in accordance with international best practice;
- if the applicant has fully consulted with affected people; and has adequately addressed their concerns.
In addition to the Certificate of Compliance, the activities might also require a separate authorization for the polluting activity during operation, a pollution control licence. Hence, the Certificate of Compliance may not be the only authorisation required for project approval.
EIA regulation 9 (2008)
Describes which authority/authorities is/are responsible for each of the main decision-making processes on EIA (EIA approval, environmental approval and/or project approval). It is explained if those decisions are taken by the same or different authorities.
The Executive Deputy Director of NEPA is responsible for accepting or rejecting the EIA report and thus taking the decision on the issuing of the Certificate of Compliance.
Mentions if the decision (on EIA approval and/or environmental approval) is linked to certain documents (e.g. environmental management plan, permit conditions) in order to facilitate the management of environmental risks during project implementation. Also describes if commitments of the proponent are incorporated into legally binding instruments.
NEPA attaches conditions to the permit.
Sets out requirements for justification of the consideration of the EIA information in decision-making (on EIA approval, environmental approval and/or project approval).
The decision on the Certificate of Compliance falls together with the EIA report approval. If the EIA report is found to be not satisfactory the proponent is informed in writing about the concerns of the NEPA regarding it.
Does the decision (on EIA approval, environmental approval and/or project approval) have to be published? Also, is the decision justification published as well?
Maximum number of (working) days available to the competent authority to make the EIA based decision (EIA approval, environmental clearance and/or project approval).
Within 45 days from submission of the EIA report it has to be decided if the report is approved. This decision falls together with the decision on the issuing of a Certificate of Compliance.
Monitoring, Compliance and Enforcement
Is compliance monitoring required to check if the project is implemented as described in the EIA documents and/or if mitigation of environmental impacts complies with applicable standards and other measures set out in the EIA documents? Who is responsible for ensuring compliance? How does this authority ensure compliance (for example, through inspections)? And what requirements are there for the p
The EIA regulations (2008) do not provide requirements for a follow-up on the Certificate of Compliance. However, the non-binding EIA policy (2007) mention follow-up to be part of the EIA process but to provide very limited information on the process. The follow-up process includes ensuring that the terms and conditions of the approval are met.
Are there monitoring requirements that involve external parties, such as citizen monitoring (for example, through a complaints procedure), or third party auditing?
Are there penalties that the authority responsible for compliance can apply if environmental conditions are not met? What are these? (for example, fines, suspension of license)
NEPA may issue a compliance order if the conditions of the permit have been breached and can required the person to take actions, or take these actions itself and recover the costs and may suspend the license with immediate effect. If the holder of the permit fails to comply with the compliance order he shall be tried by a court of law and shall be sentenced to up to three month imprisonment and/or 10,000 Afghanis. ( Environment Law article 69-70)
Are there any requirements to monitor if the impacts in reality are as they were predicted in the EIA, with the purpose of evaluating the EIA itself and improving future EIA practice?
The EIA policy mentions the monitoring the actual impacts of activities and the effectiveness of the mitigation measures in order to strengthen future EIA applications and mitigation measures. Also, process evaluation to optimize environmental management is mentioned.
Is the proponent required to pay a fee when applying for an EIA? Is this fee linked to a permitting fee, or separate? If yes, when is this paid and to whom (to the agency that issues the license or to a central agency)?
A proponent, being a non-Afghan natural or legal person or a combined Afghan and non-Afghan enterprises, pays 100,000 Afghanis to the Ministry of Finance when the Certificate of Compliance has been issued.
EIA regulation 11 (2008)
Public participation requirements for EIA process stages
Describes for which of the EIA process stages public participation is required.
It is required by Law that the public can participate in all stages. In the EIA regulations (2008), specific provisions are given for the public participation during the Screening phase.
Article 19 of the Environmental Law determines that affected persons may express their opinion on the following elements:
- the proposed activity, plan or policy as such
- the preliminary assessment
- the EIS
- the final record of opinion
- the comprehensive mitigation plan
Environment Law (article19 of the Environment Law ) and regulation 7 (4) of interim EIA regulations
Public participation guidance
Has any guidance on participation been provided?
Access to information
Which of the information that is generated in the EIA process is available to the public? Specifically, which reports and decision statements?
See also at the public participation requirements:
Article 19 of the Environmental Law determines that affected persons may express their opinion on the following elements:
- the proposed activity, plan or policy as such
- the preliminary assessment
- the EIS
- the final record of opinion
- the comprehensive mitigation plan
How can the public receive the information that is publicly available? Are there public announcement on the proceedings? How/where are these published? Is information made available locally? Is information sent on request? etc.
The proponent is responsible for distributing copies the documents that are subject to public review to affected persons. Also the proponent has to inform the public about the documents that are made available through advertising the document and displaying a copy of it for inspection. During the Screening phase, a notice of public disclosure is distributed. Application documents are available at NEPA.
Environment Law (2007)
Timeline for public comments
The number of (working) days available for the public to make comments on the EIA decision document.
The public has 21 days to comment after the notice of public disclosure, before the NEPA takes a screening decision.
Costs for public
Are there any specified costs public parties will incur if they partake in EIA?(e.g. costs for the receiving report, costs of losing an appeal, etc. Costs associated with travel to meetings or such are not included here)
The costs are borne by the proponent in terms of article 18 of the Environment Law.
What options do the public have to provide their comments. Should comments be written, or may they also be verbal? To which agency should they provide their submissions?
Bearing in mind the reality on the ground in Afghanistan, there is no restriction on form. The proponent will be responsible for collecting comments at, for example, public meetings. However NEPA will perform an oversight function in this regard. During the transitional period, it is anticipated that the proponents will have a mentoring function in relation to NEPA. Although there is a conflict of interests of sorts in this approach, it should be borne in mind that most proponents are donors/ implementing agencies, and that capacity building is the focus of many of their programmes.
Public comments in decision-making
Do the EIA and/or project approval decisions have to be justified on the basis of public participation results? Do legal texts indicate how public participation results should be used and to which decision-making processses they should contribute?
The EIA Law specifies that the NEPA shall not take a decision on the Certificate of Compliance until the proponent has fullfilled several requirements on public participation. Also that the consultant has to have fully consulted with affected people and that he has adequately addressed their concerns is named as a main criteria of the NEPA to decide whether the Certificate of Compliance will be granted or not.
Environment Law Article 19, EIA regulation 9(3) (2008)
Possibilities for appeal
What are the legal recourse options to challenge EIA decisions are provided for within the legal framework?
Appeal is possible to any person under the Environment Law (2007, article 17) to the Director-General of NEPA. The Director will then review the appeal applicationa and take a decision regarding it. If the appellant wishes to appeal this decision of the Director-General of NEPA, the matter will be referred to a relveant court.
Decisions that can be appealed
Which EIA decisions can be appealed?
The decision on the granting or rejecting of the Certificate of Compliance can be appealed.
Who can appeal
Who can make an appeal (in other words, has legal standing)?
Any person can appeal the decision to grant or refuse a permit.
Annual no. of EIAs
Gives an estimation for the number of full EIAs that are produced annually in this country.
Any EIA practice review studies that have been done (by governmental agencies or others) are listed here. Where relevant, links to studies are included, and the main conclusions of the studies are summarised.
Accreditation of consultants
Is there and accreditation system operational in the country to certify consultants to do EIAs?
Professional bodies relevant to EIA practice in the country, such as EIA Associations, Environmental Expert Associations, etc are listed here.
Non-governmental EIA guidance
Lists any EIA manuals and good practice publications (including checklists, case studies) that have been published by parties other than government.
Ongoing training programmes (including professional and academic training) and major training events held in the past (with focus on recent events) are mentioned here.
The UNEP capacity building and institutional development programme for environmental management in Afghanistan was officially launched by UNEP and the European Commission in October 2003. The programme focuses on five pillars: 1) environmental institutions and coordination; 2) environmental law and policy; 3) environmental impact assessment; 4) environmental information and education; 5) community-based natural resource management. As part of this programme, UNEP is mandated to develop NEPA's capacity.