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Updated to: 09 October 2013Download as PDF
Country contact on EIA
Contact details for the country contact on EIA.
Mr. C.E. Nelom (Acting Director Environmental and Social Assessment)
Mr. Q. Tjon-Akon (Field officer Environmental and Social Assessment)
Mrs. Y. Babb-Echteld (Field officer Environmental and Social Assessment)
Mrs. M. Danoe-Alimoenadi (Field officer Environmental and Social Assessment)
NIMOS: Nationaal Instituut voor Milieu en Ontwikkeling in Suriname
(National Institute for Environment and Development in Surinam)
Tel. +597 520043
Fax. + 597 520042
History of EIA
Brief description of the history of the EIA system in the country, including when it was introduced and any major milestones in its development.
EIA practice is relatively young in Suriname. Although EIA’s were conducted before the existence of NIMOS (1998) there was never an established EIA system as such. The EIA approach that NIMOS has introduced was drafted in the year 2001 and disseminated from 2003 onwards.
Legal framework for EIA
Name of first enabling legislation that sets a framework for EIA.
Year of introduction of enabling law
Year when the enabling law for EIA was issued
Besides an obligation to conduct an EIA for investments over US $ 40 million, EIA is not formally mandatory. This generic EIA obligation comes from the 1991 environmental agreement. The new Environment Act that is currently under development will establish a legal framework for EIA.
Year of introduction of first national detailed regulation for EIA
Year when when the first national detailed regulation (procedural requirements) through which EIA was operationalized.
EIA regulation and procedures have been drafted, but not yet formalised.
Sector specific procedures or regulations on EIA
Any existing sectoral procedural or content regulations are listed here, as well as the authority that issued each.
None exist (check)
Any government issued guidelines on EIA (general, or sectoral) are listed here, as well as the authority that issued each. Describe the legal status of the guidelines.
Five (voluntary) guidelines have been issued: a generic guideline on EIA (updated in 2009) and guidelines for EIA for Power Generation and Transmission, Social Impact, and one for EIA in Forestry and Mining. All were issued by NIMOS.
NIMOS is in the process of updating these guidelines and their new versions are expected to be available in 2014.
Objective of EIA
The objective of EIA as stated in the above described legal basis.
The generic EA guidelines do not set a clear objective for EIA. The EIA guidelines for the forestry sector state that an environmental assessment may 'be undertaken to determine potential changes in environmental status arising from proposed activities, policies or other developments...or to simply establish the prevailing environmental status quo'.
Scope of EIA application
Describes which types of activities require EIA (public and/or private activities; national and/or foreign initiated project; or all such projects)
The generic EIA guidelines state that all activities which are likely to have adverse environmental impacts are subject to EIA, and that EIA applies to both public and private initiatives.
EIA guideline part I (2009)
Exemptions from EIA application
Describes any (groups of) activities identified in the regulation that are exempted from the requirement to do EIA (e.g. military or emergency activities).
The EIA guidelines state that project proponents may apply for an exemption from EIA in cases where:
- immediate project implementation is required to address matters of health or safety, or to prevent environmental damage;
- for matters of national importance;
- if an EIA for the activity has been approved before, and the EIA has not changed considerably since then, and public debate has been adequate.
Environmental Assessment Guidelines; volume I; 2009.
Institutional setting for EIA
Central EIA authority
Is there a central authority in charge of implementing EIA? Is it independent or linked to a higher body (e.g ministry)? What are its tasks related to EIA?
Within EIA practice, the National Institute for Environment and Development (NIMOS) has a central role. NIMOS was set up in 1988 as the executive and research arm of the National Council for the Environment (NRM), which provides the government with advice on the development of environmental policy and its implementation. When the Ministry for Labour, Technological Development and Environment was set up in 2000, NIMOS was given additional responsibility to advise on environmental management to this ministry, as well as to report on progress with implementation.
NIMOS has issued guidelines on EIA, advises on screening decisions for EIA, advices on the scope of EIAs, and reviews the EIA reports prepared.
Other key (governmental) parties involved in EIA, and their roles
Lists other key parties (e.g. a review commission, knowledge institute) that have a role in many or all EIAs.
NRM and NIMOS work in close cooperation with line ministries responsible for the approval of projects that affect the environment. The sector ministries are responsible for implementing the National Environmental Management Agreement (1991). There is an Inter-Ministerial Advisory Commission (IMAC) which can act as an co-ordinating body.
Mandate for exemption of EIA obligation
Describes if there is a legal mandate for a competent authority to make exemptions of EIA obligation. And if yes, under which conditions (e.g. national security, disasters or no conditions/when deemed necessary).
The EIA guideline states that NIMOS may exempt activities subject to EIA from the EIA obligation in certain cases.
(De)centralisation of EIA mandates
Describes if EIA mandates are (de)centralised. Vertical decentralization refers to the extent to which the responsibility for EIA processes are delegated by the central government to the provincial or local authorities. Sectoral or horizontal decen
No specifications for decentralisation of EIA mandates have been made.
Overview EIA procedure
Characterizes the overall EIA procedure. If relevant, interesting aspects of the EIA procedure are mentioned such as: which procedural steps are part of the EIA procedure? How are they linked to each other? Are there different levels of assessment di
The EIA guidelines suggest the following steps of the EIA process:
- Screening: Includes the categorization of a project
- Scoping: Formulation of Terms of Reference
- Assessment process
- Review process: done by NIMOS
- Decision making: NIMOS gives recommendations for issuing of sectoral permit
- Compliance Monitoring
Important documents of the EIA process as suggested by the EIA guidelines are: Starting document (Screening), Terms of Reference (Scoping), EIA report, review report, response letter of NIMOS on licence application.
Screening requirement and authority
Describes if a formal screening decision required, and if so, which authority is responsible for this decision. Is this decision published?
The non-binding EIA guidelines provide for screening. NIMOS decides on the need for an EIA.
Environmental Assessment Guidelines; Volume I; generic, 2009.
Describes the screening process: steps in screening, the stakeholders involved and outcomes of the process, status of screening advice of different stakeholders, etc. Also describes any prescribed methods for screening. If preliminary EIA's / light EIA's / Initial Environmental Evaluations (IEE) are done in this country and which criteria determine whether a preliminary or a full EIA is requested
The proponent submits an application with general information on the project to the permitting agency, who sends the documents to NIMOS for an advice on the need for an EIA. NIMOS uses the screening guidelines (Annex 1 of the EIA guidance) and the screening list (Annex 2 of the EIA guidelines) to decide on screening. Annex 1 provides a screening process consisting of several steps and a checklist to identify impacts. The outcomes of screening is that the activity is categorised into one of the categories listed in Annex 2. These are :
- Category A activities are requested to submit a full EIA.
- Category B activities need to submit additional information. Three paths are distinguished that can be the outcome after screening of the additional information: 1) No further assessment is required; 2) an Environmental management plan, social impact assessment/ waste management plans/ EIA statement/ ecological impact study, etc are required; 3) a full EIA is required.
- Category C activities do not require EIA.
In case an EIA is needed (Category A or B), this is announced in the media. When an EIA is not requested for a Category B project, this is also published in the media. The pubic may appeal this decision.
Provision for sensitive areas
Are specific requirements formulated for environmentally sensitive areas? (e.g. no minimum thresholds, full EIA instead of partial EIA)
The screening checklist includes (under characteristics of the proposed area) a check on whether the project will affect any areas that are protected by legislation and/or have uniqueness natural features.
Annex 1 Environmental Assessment Guidelines, 2009.
Contents of the starting document
Describes the required content of the starting document (if any) that the proponent should submit to the competent authority for EIA screening. Mentions if the starting document is published.
The information submitted with the application for a permit should contain:
- Name, address and contact point of the applicant;
- Location, site characteristics, design, size and duration of project;
- A non-technical explanation of the project, including purpose;
- Demonstration of need and justification;
- Detailed site plan, including a map;
- Possible impacts on the environment;
- Other information on request.
Maximum number of (working) days allowed between submission of the starting document and the screening decision.
NIMOS takes 14 working days between submission of the starting document and the screening decision.
Is a formal scoping step required as part of the EIA process?
The voluntary EIA guidelines give provisions for scoping.
EIA guidelines, 2009.
Describes who carries main responsibility to undertake scoping and what the roles and responsibilities of the involved parties during the process are. Specifically, is there independent formulation and/or review of the scoping document, approval of the scoping document? Are any methods prescribed, e.g. participation, checklists. What guidance is provided?
After NIMOS has decided that an EIA is needed, the proponent is required to publish an announcement stating the intent to undertake the project, according to the EIA guidelines. This may be accompanied with announcements of public consultations: where the public can make comments on issues that they would like to see addressed in the EIA. The proponent organises this consultation. In the scoping phase, the proponent also proposes a Terms of Reference (ToR) to NIMOS. Annex 6 of the EIA guidelines provide instructions for scoping (including a checklist). After assessing the ToR, NIMOS issues project specific guidelines for the content of the EIA report. NIMOS may consult other authorities in setting the guidelines.
Contents of the scoping document
Explains if there are there specific requirements for the content of the scoping document, and if so, what these are.
The ToR can be considered the scoping documents in this system. The EIA guidelines do not set out the content of the ToR, but do indicate which issues need to be considered when drawing up this ToR (in Annex 6 of the guideline).
Environmental Assessment Guidelines; volume I; generic, March 2005.
Number of (working) days for the decision on approval of the scoping document by the competent authority.
No timeline is specified for scoping.
Assessment and reporting
Steps and roles of stakeholders in the assessment and status of the input of the stakeholders. Also sets out methods for assessment of the environmental impacts of the activity, if prescribed, and whether the assessment covers environmental, social, economic and/or transboundary effects.
The EIA guidelines states that the EIA should cover both social and environmental effects. The guidelines do not prescribe a specific method for assessment. Review criteria for the EIA report, as given in the Annex 10 do provide some suggestions on how to decide if a method is appropriate.
Contents of the EIA report
Explains what should be contained in the EIA report. Specifies if a potential Environmental Management Plan is part of the EIA report or if it is a separate document that contributes to the EIA process.
The recommended structure for the EIA report is:
- executive summary;
- legal and institutional framework;
- project description;
- justification for the project;
- evaluation of project alternatives;
- description of the existing environment (baseline);
- environmental impacts(positive and negative);
- Environmental Management Plan;
- significance of residual impacts (after mitigation);
- public consultation (including a list of stakeholders, methodology for consultation, public concerns & responses to those concerns);
- Monitoring Plan;
- plan for decommissioning;
- project impact management summary management table;
Environmental Assessment Guidelines; volume I; Annex 9, 2009.
Overview of the review process, including: steps in the process and roles of the stakeholders, status of the input of the stakeholders. Is the process open to public? Review method: internal review, external review, panel/commission (permanent or temporary), are the review results documented? Are the review criteria general or case by case? Are the review results documented? Is a potential review
Annex 8 of the EIA guidelines describes the review process. NIMOS is responsible for undertaking EIA review. After receiving the EIA report from the proponent, NIMOS conducts a quick compliance check using a checklist and the project specific guidelines/ToR. NIMOS may request additional information.
Once the EIA report is considered complete, NIMOS uses a Technical Circulation Checklist to determine which governmental agencies should receive the report with an invitation to submit comments.
The executive summary of the EIA report is send to potentially affected people. The public (all) may comment on it.
For the more in-depth review, the review team that NIMOS sets up evaluates the EIA report against the checklist in Annex 10 (with an explanation in Annex 11) of the guidelines, and draws up a review report. The Review Report contains a project impact management summary table. This table compares the project action-potential impact-proposed mitigation measures-proposed monitoring plan and makes additional recommendations. The report conclusions includes:
- a description of compliance with legal requirements (or non-compliance);
- recommendations for approval or denial of the Sectoral Permit;
- proposed condition for the authorization, including the mitigation measures , the environmental management implementation plan and the monitoring plan.
Based on the review report, NIMOS drafts a response on the license application. This response letter of NIMOS should consolidate all technical review opinions.
Describes if the EIA is checked by external parties, and if so to what extent these represent required disciplines/expertise. Also sets out if measures have been taken to ensure that reviewers are impartial?
As indicated in the guidelines, checks include consultation with relevant government staff and the composition of a multidisciplinary team to undertake the review. NIMOS can decide to contract external expertise to assist the team. In the course of the review, NIMOS may organize a closed meeting with other government officials to discuss conflicting opinions.
Number of (working) days for review of the EIA by the competent authority.
The timeline is not specified. In practice it varies, a review can take between 60 and 135 working days.
Integration of EIA into decision-making
Describes what kind of decision-making processes the EIA is intended to support. We look specifically at the decision on EIA approval, and how this relates to envirionmental approval for the project, and other project approval decisions (permits) needed before a project can proceed. This category describes which decisions are influenced by EIA and how they are linked to each other.
The EIA guidelines state that before any permit will be issued, NIMOS will receive the application for the permit and will submit a binding advice to the licensing agency both on approval/rejection of the project and on any environmental conditions that should be attached to this decision (e.g. by a sector ministry). For projects that NIMOS considers to require an EIA, NIMOS will give advice on the project only after approval of the EIA. Any conditions NIMOS advises can then be based on the EIA outcomes.
EIA guidelines, 2009.
Describes which authority/authorities is/are responsible for each of the main decision-making processes on EIA (EIA approval, environmental approval and/or project approval). It is explained if those decisions are taken by the same or different authorities.
NIMOS approves the EIA report, while the licensing agency (e.g. sector ministry) is responsible for the license decision.
Sets out requirements for justification of the consideration of the EIA information in decision-making (on EIA approval, environmental approval and/or project approval).
It is suggested in the guidelines that the review team also reports on the justification of the approval or denial of the project.
Does the decision (on EIA approval, environmental approval and/or project approval) have to be published? Also, is the decision justification published as well?
Publication of the decision is the responsibility of the permitting agency.
Maximum number of (working) days available to the competent authority to make the EIA based decision (EIA approval, environmental clearance and/or project approval).
Not specified in the guidelines, responsibility of the permitting agency.
Monitoring, Compliance and Enforcement
Is compliance monitoring required to check if the project is implemented as described in the EIA documents and/or if mitigation of environmental impacts complies with applicable standards and other measures set out in the EIA documents? Who is responsible for ensuring compliance? How does this authority ensure compliance (for example, through inspections)? And what requirements are there for the p
According to the EIA guidelines, monitoring of environmental conditions is a requirement. The proponent submits a monitoring plan and environmental management plan with the EIA report. Annex 12 of the EIA guidelines gives instructions for developing an environmental management plan. The guidelines state that the proponent is obliged to implement the proposed plan. The proponent also needs to conduct mandatory monitoring if it is required as an outcome of the EIA.
According to the guidelines, NIMOS and the permitting agency review the monitoring results and post-decision evaluation every year, taking into account the implementation of the Environmental Management Plan. On the basis of the monitoring results, the permitting agency and NIMOS may require additional mitigation measures and/or requirements to the permit.
Environmental Assessment Guidelines; volume I; generic, March 2005.
Are there penalties that the authority responsible for compliance can apply if environmental conditions are not met? What are these? (for example, fines, suspension of license)
No information is given on penalties.
Are there any requirements to monitor if the impacts in reality are as they were predicted in the EIA, with the purpose of evaluating the EIA itself and improving future EIA practice?
The EIA guidelines do not mention EIA evaluation with the purpose of improving future EIA practice.
Is the proponent required to pay a fee when applying for an EIA? Is this fee linked to a permitting fee, or separate? If yes, when is this paid and to whom (to the agency that issues the license or to a central agency)?
The payment of a fee for processing the EIA is not yet a mandatory aspect of the EIA system.
Public participation requirements for EIA process stages
Describes for which of the EIA process stages public participation is required.
The EIA guidelines set out requirements for public participation. Its importance during the scoping and review phases is highlighted.
Public participation arrangements
Relevant information regarding the arrangements for public participation are provided here (e.g. who is responsible for it, who is consulted, does the legislation mention consultation or participation, for which project should consultations be held, are public hearings held etc.)
The requirements for public participation as stated in the EIA guidelines include dissemination of information and the organisation of a public hearing. The guidelines further suggest that NIMOS take a facilitating role, in receiving public comments and ensuring the proponent addresses these.
Public participation guidance
Has any guidance on participation been provided?
Access to information
Which of the information that is generated in the EIA process is available to the public? Specifically, which reports and decision statements?
Disclosure of information is limited to the executive summary of the EIA report, which is sent to the affected people and made available at a location easily accessible to the public.
How can the public receive the information that is publicly available? Are there public announcement on the proceedings? How/where are these published? Is information made available locally? Is information sent on request? etc.
The guidelines suggest that information on the project's impacts and mitigation measures be broadcast in the media, through radio, newspapers and television.
EIA guidelines 2009
Timeline for public comments
The number of (working) days available for the public to make comments on the EIA decision document.
Costs for public
Are there any specified costs public parties will incur if they partake in EIA?(e.g. costs for the receiving report, costs of losing an appeal, etc. Costs associated with travel to meetings or such are not included here)
There are no specifications set out in the EIA guideline for this aspect.
What options do the public have to provide their comments. Should comments be written, or may they also be verbal? To which agency should they provide their submissions?
The public may make comments, both verbally and in writing, regarding issues to be addressed in the EIA when the screening decision is published, and may later comment on the conclusions from the EIA report.
EIA guidelines 2009
Possibilities for appeal
What are the legal recourse options to challenge EIA decisions are provided for within the legal framework?
There are possibilities for appeal within the EIA process, as set out in Annex 5 of the EIA guidelines. Appeal must be made within 30 days of decision-making and is directed to the Minister for Environment. A hearing will be held on the appeal. The National Environmental Council advises to the minister on the appeal decision. The decisions is provided within 30 days.
Decisions that can be appealed
Which EIA decisions can be appealed?
The public may appeal the screening decision or it may appeal the final EIA review decision.
Who can appeal
Who can make an appeal (in other words, has legal standing)?
Anyone can make an appeal: government agencies, the proponent and the public.
EIA guidelines, Annex 5, 2009
Annual no. of EIAs
Gives an estimation for the number of full EIAs that are produced annually in this country.
The number of EIAs has been growing steadily in the last years. In 2009, 14 EIAs were reviewed by NIMOS. Exact data on the numer of EIAs are not available, as EIA is still a voluntary process and NIMOS does not necessarily receive all EIAs prepared.
Central EIA database
Is there a central database or library where information on EIAs is kept (i.e. where all EIAs are registered and/or copies are archived). If so, what is kept there and is this information publicly accessible?
There is no central EIA database, but NIMOS does keep records on all the EIAs that it advises on.
Any EIA practice review studies that have been done (by governmental agencies or others) are listed here. Where relevant, links to studies are included, and the main conclusions of the studies are summarised.
The Surinam Country Environmental Assessment published by the Inter-American Development Bank in 2005 contains an overview of the EIA system and reference to several EIA cases.
Surinam Country Environmental Assessment, final report, August 2005, IADB.
Accreditation of consultants
Is there and accreditation system operational in the country to certify consultants to do EIAs?
There is no accreditation system for consultants who deliver services in EIA report preparation.
Professional bodies relevant to EIA practice in the country, such as EIA Associations, Environmental Expert Associations, etc are listed here.
There are no professional bodies specifically for impact assessment in Surinam.
Other relevant links on EIA
Any other relevant links (for example to country specific guidance documents) are included here.
Website of NIMOS