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Updated to: 27 June 2011Download as PDF
Country contact on EIA
Contact details for the country contact on EIA.
Ministry of The Environment and Natural Resources
Address: Km 12 ½ carretera norte frente a zona franca
Apdo 5123 Managua, Nicaragua
Tel.: (505) 22 63 26 20
Web Page: http://www.marena.gob.ni
History of EIA
Brief description of the history of the EIA system in the country, including when it was introduced and any major milestones in its development.
The System of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) started with the approval of The Regulations for Permits and Environmental Impact Assessment (RPEIA) in 1994. Curiously, these regulations came previous to the creation of The General Law of Environment and Natural Resources in 1996. When this Law was created, it respected and incorporated the Regulations for Permits and Environmental Impact Assessment (RPEIA) of 1994, and considered it to be one of the instruments of environmental management. It also created a new milestone with respect to the environment, as before this General Law environment was not considered in sectoral law from an integrated point of view. In addition , the law determined the decentralization for Environmental Impact Assessment to the Autonomous Regions on The Atlantic Coast dividing it into The North Atlantic and The South Atlantic Regions.
After 10 years in operation, the first regulation was overthrown in 2006 by creating a new Regulation that took into account for the first time, a “System for Environmental Assessment” which takes into account everything concerning the procedures for EIA.
Year of introduction of EIA legislation
NB: this field is only meant for the world map. It is a hidden cell that is not published on the website. If available, mention the year when detailed national EIA regulations were issued. If such regulations do not exist and if EIA practice is base
With the promulgation of the Regulations for Permits and Environmental Impact Assessment (RPEIA), Decree N° 45-94, on 28 October
Legal framework for EIA
Year of introduction of enabling law
Year when the enabling law for EIA was issued
The legal framework is stipulated by Law No. 217, a general law for the Environment and Natural Resources.
Approving authority of enabling law
Authority that approved the enabling law for EIA.
Year of introduction of first national detailed regulation for EIA
Year when when the first national detailed regulation (procedural requirements) through which EIA was operationalized.
The executive decree 76-2006 regulates the System of EIA in Nicaragua for all plans and programs that require both private and public investment, including all the activities, projects, works and industries subject to Environmental Impact Studies.
Recent updates and additions to the EIA legislation
Revisions of the EIA provisions in the enabling law or the national detailed EIA regulation (procedural requirements) are named. The year is listed, and the main changes since the first regulation are mentioned, if available. Also, additional EIA-re
Sector specific procedures or regulations on EIA
Any existing sectoral procedural or content regulations are listed here, as well as the authority that issued each.
No regulation exists for any specific sector.
Any government issued guidelines on EIA (general, or sectoral) are listed here, as well as the authority that issued each. Describe the legal status of the guidelines.
In accordance with the Executive Decree 76-2006, the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources in Nicaragua (MARENA) gives priority to the following Guidelines, even though they have not been approved yet:
- Guidelines for site inspection and criteria for technical supervision of the EIA.
- General guidelines for preparing Terms of reference for strategic Environmental Assessment and project Environmental Impact Assessment, according to their category.
- Guidelines for review and assessment of an Environmental Impact Study.
- Guidelines for construction (for low and moderate environmental impact).
Also, at a Central American level, Guidelines for technical review and assessment of environmental Impact for mining, energy and tourism are in the development stages.
Objective of EIA
The objective of EIA as stated in the above described legal basis.
Basically speaking, the main objective of the EIA is to obtain the environmental permit from the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA)
The Environmental Impact Assessment is defined in the Regulation as: “... the policy and environmental management instrument consisting of a mixture of processes, studies and technical systems that allow an estimate of the effects that the execution of a work, activity or project will have on the environment.”
Scope of EIA application
Describes which types of activities require EIA (public and/or private activities; national and/or foreign initiated project; or all such projects)
As stipulated in the Environmental law, an environmental permit is required for all projects, works, industries or any other activity that for its characteristics can affect or deteriorate the environment or any of the natural resources.
Any public or private activity, work or project of national or foreign investment, during its pre-investment phase, execution, expansion, rehabilitation, or reconstruction, will be subject to the realization of all the necessary impact studies and assessments on the environment, as a requirement for the granting of its respective permit.
Exemptions from EIA application
Describes any (groups of) activities identified in the regulation that are exempted from the requirement to do EIA (e.g. military or emergency activities).
As stipulated in Article 12, in the Regulation on the EIA, for reasons of a force majeure or an act of God, such as projects formulated to mitigate disasters or projects of national interest or national security that would give answers to a national emergency situation and could be classified into one of the environmental categories, The Ministry of Environment, along with the local government councils can dictate an exemption to the requirement of a Environmental Impact Study and can issue an emergency permit for a project or activity that would normally require an Environmental Impact Study or an Environmental Assessment, previous to a written request from The National System of Prevention and Mitigation of Disasters, from their executive secretary or Defense Minister, which ever the case may be.
Institutional setting for EIA
Central EIA authority
Is there a central authority in charge of implementing EIA? Is it independent or linked to a higher body (e.g ministry)? What are its tasks related to EIA?
The Environmental Impact Assessment system is administered by the Central office of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA) under the General Office of Environmental Quality.
The General Office of Environmental Quality (DGCA) should comply with all the functions that were assigned in the Presidential decree 76-2006, concerning Environmental Assessment, among which:
- Establish the national registry of environmental assessment including registration of environmental consultants.
- To promote, assess and train in the different governmental sectors of the country in the application SEA and elaborate instruments for the formulation and execution of plans and programs for environmental management.
- To facilitate the coordination of relationships between the different Environmental Management Units of the government on both sectorial and municipal levels including entities that do not have mandates on this subject.
Other key (governmental) parties involved in EIA, and their roles
Lists other key parties (e.g. a review commission, knowledge institute) that have a role in many or all EIAs.
- Environmental Sectorial Units (from the different ministries). Consulted during the decision making stage of the projects in categories I and II, along with other functions as members of the inter-institutional commission (see functions of these).
- Territorial Representatives of MARENA. Consulted during the decision making stage of the project in categories I and II, along with other functions as members of the inter-institutional commission (see functions of these).
- Municipal Governments.
- Regional Council in the autonomous Regions. Consulted during the decision making stage of the project in categories I and II, along with other functions as members of the inter-institutional commission. (See functions of these). These can also dictate an exemption to the requirement of an Environmental Impact Study as stipulated in Article 12, in the Regulation on the EIA.
- Inter-institutional commissions for Environmental Assessment. Made up of representatives of the different Environmental Administrative Units of autonomous entities, Municipal Governments, SERENA, Universities, Territorial Representatives of MARENA. The functions of this commission is stipulated in Article 11, in the EIA Regulation:
- Give support to MARENA or SERENA in the elaboration of the corresponding Terms of reference to be used.
- Participate in consultant meetings with the project promoter and his interdisciplinary team of professionals selected by him to elaborate the Environmental Impact Study.
- Participate and dictate criteria after reviewing the documentation and information that is required for an environmental Assessment.
- Participate in the team that makes the field trips that are programmed.
- Provide the necessary supplies or support for the environmental feasibility study that MARENA or SERENA dictates.
- Participate in the final revision on the technical solutions and offer support on the administrative resolution for granting or not granting the environmental permit.
Mandate for exemption of EIA obligation
Describes if there is a legal mandate for a competent authority to make exemptions of EIA obligation. And if yes, under which conditions (e.g. national security, disasters or no conditions/when deemed necessary).
The Ministry of Environment along with the local government councils can dictate an exemption from the requirement of a Environmental Impact Study and can issue an emergency permit for a project or activity that would normally require an Environmental Impact Study or an Environmental Assessment, previous to a written request from the executive secretary of The National System of Prevention and Mitigation of Disasters or the Defense Minister, which ever the case may be.
(De)centralisation of EIA mandates
Describes if EIA mandates are (de)centralised. Vertical decentralization refers to the extent to which the responsibility for EIA processes are delegated by the central government to the provincial or local authorities. Sectoral or horizontal decen
Nicaragua has two autonomous regions in the Caribbean, The North Atlantic Coast Autonomous Region and The South Atlantic Coast Autonomous Region. For these two territories, the EIA system is administrated by its associated Regional Council. As stipulated in the Presidential decree No. 36-2002, denominated “For the Administration of a Permit System and Environmental Impact Assessment on the Autonomous Regions of The Atlantic Coast” an administrative process was established for each Autonomous Regional Council in The Administration System for granting permits and for Assessment on the Environmental Impact, to be used for granting environmental permits in these regions.
Screening requirement and authority
Describes if a formal screening decision required, and if so, which authority is responsible for this decision. Is this decision published?
- CATEGORY I – is administrated by MARENA Central Offices through the DGCA in coordination with the Environmental Sectorial Units (from the different ministries), Territorial Representatives of MARENA and the Municipal governments, according to the type of work, project, industry or activity. In the case of the Autonomous Regions of the country, the respective regional councils in coordination with the Municipal governments and the local communities involved will issue their technical considerations to MIRENA expressed in a resolution at a Regional Council meeting , and this will be incorporated into the final corresponding Administrative resolution.
- CATEGORY II – is administrated by MARENA Central Offices through the DGCA in coordination with The Environmental Sectorial Units (from the different ministries), depending on the type of work, project, industry or activity. In the case of the Autonomous Regions of the country, the system is administrated by the respective regional councils through the Secretariat of Natural Resources and Environment (SERENA) in coordination with MARENA.
The MARENA or the Regional Councils should create an inter-institutional commission to environmentally assess the projects in Categories I and II, formed by representatives from all Environmental Sectorial Units (UGAS), autonomous entities units, municipal government units, SERENA, Universities, Territorial delegates from MARENA and whatever other institution that could contribute essential elements to the analysis of environmental assessment.
- CATEGORY III – The process of environmental assessment and the granting of the environmental authorization is administrated by territorial delegates of the respective regional councils through the Secretariat of Natural Resources and Environment (SERENA) in each territorial field.
Projects of low potential environmental impact (not subject to an EIA) are managed by the municipalities.
Describes the screening process: steps in screening, the stakeholders involved and outcomes of the process, status of screening advice of different stakeholders, etc. Also describes any prescribed methods for screening. If preliminary EIA's / light EIA's / Initial Environmental Evaluations (IEE) are done in this country and which criteria determine whether a preliminary or a full EIA is requested
It is required to fill out and submit an environmental form to assess all Projects, Works, Activities, and Industries and as stipulated in the presidential decree 76-2006. All projects will be clasified into three main categories:
- CATEGORY I - These are considered to be special projects for their national, bi-national or regional importance and their related high impact on the economy, social activity and the environment and are therefore subject to an Environmental Impact Study.
- CATEGORY II - All works, projects, industries and activities considered in this Environmental Category II can cause a potential high impact on the environment and are subject to an Environmental Impact Study.
- CATEGORY III - This category relates to projects that can cause a moderate amount of environmental impact, even though they can generate accumulative effects for which they require an environmental assessment as a condition for granting a corresponding environmental authorization.
Projects of low environmental impact potential are regulated by Article 25 of the General Law on the Environment and Natural Resources, their promoters should fill out and present a environmental application form to the corresponding municipal authorities for their respective permission depending on the established procedure. These are not subject to an Environmental Impact Study.
Provision for sensitive areas
Are specific requirements formulated for environmentally sensitive areas? (e.g. no minimum thresholds, full EIA instead of partial EIA)
As stipulated in Article 106, in the Environmental Law the renewable and non renewable Natural resources in legally protected areas, will not be subject to exploration and exploitation. This is complemented in the Regulation for mining projects of Category II, which states that “ Non metallic mining is not permitted in the protected areas within the National System of Protected Areas”.
Contents of the starting document
Describes the required content of the starting document (if any) that the proponent should submit to the competent authority for EIA screening. Mentions if the starting document is published.
• GENERAL DATA
• LOCATION OF THE PROJECT
• DATA ABOUT THE PROJECT
• SERVICES DEMANDED BY THE PROJECT
• ENERGY DEMANDED BY THE THE PROJECT
See web page document at: http://mti.gob.ni/ambiental/documentos/formato_solic_perm_amb.doc
Maximum number of (working) days allowed between submission of the starting document and the screening decision.
Not defined at the screening stage but at general level per category
Is a formal scoping step required as part of the EIA process?
Describes who carries main responsibility to undertake scoping and what the roles and responsibilities of the involved parties during the process are. Specifically, is there independent formulation and/or review of the scoping document, approval of the scoping document? Are any methods prescribed, e.g. participation, checklists. What guidance is provided?
Not defined. Internal procedures have not been published.
Contents of the scoping document
Explains if there are there specific requirements for the content of the scoping document, and if so, what these are.
MARENA hands over to the project proponent the TdR based the presented environmental form.
Number of (working) days for the decision on approval of the scoping document by the competent authority.
Not defined at the scoping stage but at general level according to the category.
Assessment and reporting
Steps and roles of stakeholders in the assessment and status of the input of the stakeholders. Also sets out methods for assessment of the environmental impacts of the activity, if prescribed, and whether the assessment covers environmental, social, economic and/or transboundary effects.
It concerns an internal procedure.
Contents of the EIA report
Explains what should be contained in the EIA report. Specifies if a potential Environmental Management Plan is part of the EIA report or if it is a separate document that contributes to the EIA process.
In 2008, the EIA-Central America Project made a model together with the environmental authorities of the region. This model has not been made official yet.
These are not published on the MARENA website, but a model can be found at the following web site:
Overview of the review process, including: steps in the process and roles of the stakeholders, status of the input of the stakeholders. Is the process open to public? Review method: internal review, external review, panel/commission (permanent or temporary), are the review results documented? Are the review criteria general or case by case? Are the review results documented? Is a potential review
It concerns an internal procedure.
Describes if the EIA is checked by external parties, and if so to what extent these represent required disciplines/expertise. Also sets out if measures have been taken to ensure that reviewers are impartial?
Inter-institutional commissions for Environmental Assessment. Made up of representatives of the different Environmental Management Units of autonomous entities, Municipal Governments, SERENA, Universities, Territorial Representatives of MARENA. The functions of this commission are stipulated in Article 11, in the EIA Regulation.
Number of (working) days for review of the EIA by the competent authority.
- Category I- MARENA has a minimum term of one hundred and twenty working days to a maximum term of two hundred forty working days for its technical review and to grant its corresponding resolution for the projects of environmental category I. This term can be interrupted by way of a notification until the required information is completed.
- Category II- MARENA and the regional councils of the autonomous regions have a maximum term of ten working days to review the preliminary documents received for the projects in environmental category II and, in case of the need for more information, this will be required in accordance with the ToR. Upon reception of this additional information, the ten working day term will be reinstated. Furthermore, MARENA and the regional councils of the autonomous regions have a maximum term of one hundred and twenty working days for its technical review and to grant the corresponding resolution for the projects of environmental category II. This term can be interrupted by way of a notification until the required information is completed.
- Category III- There is a maximum term of thirty working days for its technical review and to grant the corresponding resolution for the projects of environmental category III.
Integration of EIA into decision-making
Describes what kind of decision-making processes the EIA is intended to support. We look specifically at the decision on EIA approval, and how this relates to envirionmental approval for the project, and other project approval decisions (permits) needed before a project can proceed. This category describes which decisions are influenced by EIA and how they are linked to each other.
The information presented is to analyze the granting or not of the environmental permit.
Does the decision (on EIA approval, environmental approval and/or project approval) have to be published? Also, is the decision justification published as well?
Environmental Permit. This is an administrative act that the competitive authority dictates, part of a petition, according to the type of activity, that certifies, from the environmental protection point of view that the activity can be carried out taking into account the conditional rules established in the permit.
The environmental permit should include, the causes for a simple right of repeal, the conditions and manner of responsibility as well as an environmental management program. The conditions that were generated by the environmental assessment should be obligatorily met to comply with the proposal.
The environmental permits granted for a work, project, industry or activity should be an object of transfer of rights before the authorization of MARENA or of the autonomous regional government in the case of the Autonomous Regions. The owner of the rights assumes all obligations in the environmental permit, subject to an on-site inspection verifying that the activities to be done are the same as the ones that are stipulated in the environmental permit.
Maximum number of (working) days available to the competent authority to make the EIA based decision (EIA approval, environmental clearance and/or project approval).
The time period for the decision making corresponds to the time for review. Only in the case of Category II the MARENA and in the autonomous regions the regional councils have a maximum term of one hundred and twenty working days for the technical review and to grant the corresponding resolution for the projects of environmental category II. This term can be interrupted by way of a notification until the required information is completed.
Monitoring, Compliance and Enforcement
Are there any requirements to monitor if the impacts in reality are as they were predicted in the EIA, with the purpose of evaluating the EIA itself and improving future EIA practice?
The objective is to look after and control the level of environmental performance. It consists of monitoring and controlling the implementation of mitigating measures and conditions established in the environmental permit or the environmental assessment program. This vigilance and control will be carried out by the following authorities:
- Projects in Environmental Category I – Corresponds to the territorial delegations from MARENA and the SERENAS from the autonomous regional councils, in coordination with the inter-institutional commission for environmental assessment on special projects.
- Projects in Environmental Category II – Corresponds to the territorial delegatrions from MARENA and/or the SERENAS from the autonomous regional councils, in coordination with the environmental assessment units and the municipalities
- Projects in Environmental Category III – Corresponds to the territorial delegations from MARENA and/or the SERENAS from the autonomous regional councils, in coordination with the environmental assessment municipal units and the corresponding sectorial units. If the autonomous regions are involved, the monitoring and control will be executed by petitions that determine the respective autonomous region regime in coordination with the territorial delegations from MARENA.
Public participation requirements for EIA process stages
Describes for which of the EIA process stages public participation is required.
The System for Environmental Assessment considers that the informed public should participate at all levels. In the autonomous regions the project should be developed taking into account the customs and traditions of the general public.
As stipulated in Article 33, in the presidential decree 76-2006 the MARENA should establish special norms that regulate public consultation in the procedures of the environmental assessment based on the following guiding principals:
- The principal of proactive inclusion, in which all public persons and decision makers are involved in the process;
- The principal of shared responsibility, where the State and the general public unite forces in a strategic alliance to prevent and alleviate a negative impact on the environment by agreeing on joint decisions.
Access to information
Which of the information that is generated in the EIA process is available to the public? Specifically, which reports and decision statements?
Some files may be consulted through the web site.
Costs for public
Are there any specified costs public parties will incur if they partake in EIA?(e.g. costs for the receiving report, costs of losing an appeal, etc. Costs associated with travel to meetings or such are not included here)
Decisions that can be appealed
Which EIA decisions can be appealed?
Decisions that cannot be appealed are not specified.
Central EIA database
Is there a central database or library where information on EIAs is kept (i.e. where all EIAs are registered and/or copies are archived). If so, what is kept there and is this information publicly accessible?
A registry exists but it is not accessible for the public.
Any EIA practice review studies that have been done (by governmental agencies or others) are listed here. Where relevant, links to studies are included, and the main conclusions of the studies are summarised.
This information is not generated.
Ongoing training programmes (including professional and academic training) and major training events held in the past (with focus on recent events) are mentioned here.
Through the Central American technical committee on Environmental Impact Assessment, various international institutions and/or based on bilateral cooperation, training can be developed.
Links to laws/regulation
Any relevant links to laws or regulations are included here.
- Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources: http:// www.marena.gob.ni
Other relevant links on EIA
Any other relevant links (for example to country specific guidance documents) are included here.