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Updated to: 25 February 2015Download as PDF
Country contact on EIA
Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency
Director EIA and Monitoring
General PEPA Address: 44-E.
Office Tower, Blue Area Islamabad
History of EIA
EIA is a mandatory legal requirement in Pakistan. It started with the promulgation of Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance (PEPO) of 1983 (repealed in 1997). EIA became mandatory for all new projects, since 1st July 1994. Major events were the enactment of Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA), 1997 (Appendix-I) followed by IEE/EIA Regulations of 2000. These provide the legal basis for EIA in Pakistan until 2011.
In the period from 2011 until 2014, the EIA system in Pakistan is undergoing major changes. The so-called 18th amendment of the Pakistani constitution (2011) devolved certain responsibilities for environmental management to the regional level. The devolvement applies to EIA and SEA, and enables the provinces and independent regions in Pakistan to draft their own EIA and SEA regulation. In the scope of the National Impact Assessment Programme (see http://niap.pk/) a very detailed review of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 was undertaken in 2012, and a draft Act developed for the provinces to use as a template. In 2013 and 2014 the provinces are expected to pass bills in the respective provincial assemblies, enacting the provincial environmental law, after which detailed EIA rules will be developed and adopted per province.
ATTENTION: This country profile contains information on the EIA system in Pakistan from before 2011. It will be updated when the decentralization process is finalized.
Year of introduction of EIA legislation
Legal framework for EIA
Year of introduction of enabling law
Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance, 1983. The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA) (1997) replaced the Ordinance.
Approving authority of enabling law
Year of introduction of first national detailed regulation for EIA
In 2000, EIA regulations were issued Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency. It firstly provided a procedural legal framework for IEE and EIA.
Recent updates and additions to the EIA legislation
The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA) (1997) replaced the Ordinance.
EPA has issued a set of general guidance documents to complement the Act of 1997. These include:
- Policy and Procedures for the Filling, Review and Approvalof Environmental Assessments (1997);
- Guidelines for sensitive and critical areas (1997);
- Guidelines for preparation and review of Environmental Report (1997);
- Guidelines for Public Consultation (1997)
The following sectoral guidelines are available:
- Major thermal Power Stations: Sectoral guidelines for Environmental Reports
- Major Chemical & Manufacturing Plants: Sectoral guidelines for Environmental Reports;
- Housing States & New Town Development: Sectoral guidelines for Environmental Reports;
- Industrial States: Sectoral guidelines for Environmental Reports;
- Major Roads Guidelines: Sectoral guidelines for Environmental Reports;
- Sewage Schemes: Sectoral guidelines for Environmental Reports;
- Oil & Gas Exploration and Production: Sectoral guidelines for Environmental Reports;
- Wind Power Projects (Draft): Sectoral Guidelines for Environmental Reports
- Guidelines using Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) in Pakistan Cement Industry
- Guidelines using Refused Derived Fuel (RDF) in Pakistan Cement Industry
The Guidelines can be accessed on the following website of the Pakistani EPA: Environmental legislations and guidelines
Objective of EIA
Pollution control and promotion of sustainable development are named objectives of EIA in Pakistan.
Scope of EIA application
All projects, public, private, national and international, as listed under the EPA (Review of IEE and EIA, 2000) require an EIA.
Institutional setting for EIA
Central EIA authority
The Federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has jurisdiction over all IEEs and EIAs. It can delegate power to provincial Environmental Protection Agencies. According to the governments guidelines, issued in 1997, EPA is responsible for all projects in federal region and in territories, military projects, and projects involving trans-border or trans-province effects.
Other key (governmental) parties involved in EIA, and their roles
Other governmental institutions involved include in review of IEE or EIAs include:
- Committee of Officers; Assessment Officers and/or a Committee of Experts are consulted for their expert opinion;
- An Environmental Assessment Advisory Commission: advises the Federal Government on guidelines, procedures and categorisation of projects. It consists of persons from the Federal Agency (the Director EIA), the Provincial Agencies, the Federal Planning Commission, the Provincial Planning and Development Departments and representatives of the industry, non-governmental organizations, legal and other experts;
- Environmental Tribunals and Environmental Magistrates; receives complain on IEEs and EIAs;
- The Environmental Federal Agency within the Federal Government; responsible for IEEs for private projects, and EIAs for both private and public projects;
- The Department for Economic and Development Planning, within the Federal Government, has the responsibility over IEEs for public projects.
Mandate for exemption of EIA obligation
There is no express mandate for competent authority to exempt a project from EIA obligation.
(De)centralisation of EIA mandates
Decision making is decentralised vertically. The Environmental Federal Agency within the Federal Government is responsible for IEEs for private projects, and EIAs for both private and public projects. The Department for Economic and Development Planning, within the Federal Government, has the responsibility over IEEs for public projects. The provincial authorities, responsible for all other projects. Within the provincial authorities, the Departments for Economic and Development Planning are responsible for the IEEs for public projects, while the EPAs and the EPD (Environmental Protection Departments) are responsible for the IEEs of private projects and EIAs for both private and public projects.
As further described in the category "History of EIA", the EIA system is currently getting strongly decentralized as each province is developing their own environmental law and thereafter their own EIA regulations.
Overview EIA procedure
The EIA procedure in Pakistan requires Screening, Scoping, impact assessment and review processes. Thereafter, a decision on the EIA approval is taken and a follow-up on it conducted.
Important documents of the process are the following: Scoping report, IEE report , Environmental Report
In Pakistan, two levels of environmental assessment are distinguished: Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) and full EIA. Screening is based on both an preliminary IEE and positive lists (schedules) contained in the EIA Regulations, 2000. These schedules prescribe the groups of activities that require either an IEE or an EIA:
- Schedule I lists activities subject to IEE with maximum thresholds. Activities that exceed these thresholds are all listed in Schedule II, and are subject to EIA.
- Schedule II also lists other activities, without minimum thresholds, that require EIA. EPA at Federal or provincial level may, if it deems appropriate, directly request a proponent of certain project to submit an IEE or EIA even if not listed in schedule II or I.
The preparation of the IEE and the screening stage of an EIA are not open for other stakeholders apart from the proponent and the EPA. Additionally, sectoral guidelines contain checklists of environmental parameters that can be used to aid screening decision.
Pakistan EPA (Review of IEE and EIA) regulations, 2000 (section 3., 4. and 5.) article 5-1a)
Screening requirement and authority
Screening is a required step and conducted by the EPA at federal level and by Provincial EPAs at provincial level.
Provision for sensitive areas
All activities within environmentally sensitive areas, as described in the 'Guidelines for sensitive and critical areas' (1997), require a full EIA. The guidelines advice on the procedure to be followed for projects which (might be) located in these areas. In these cases, the proponent is required to contact the Conservation Authority for advice.
The proponent formulates the Terms of Reference; these do not have to be approved. The basis for determining the scope of the EIA derives from the sectoral guidelines, which includes a checklist on likely impacts and mitigation measures for several activities. The following steps for scoping are described in the guidelines:
- Prepare an outline of the scope, with headings such as:
a) objectives and description of the proposal,
b) the context and setting of the proposal,
f) public involvement, and
- Develop the outline of the scope through discussion with key stakeholders;
- Make outline and supporting information available to those whose views are to be obtained;
- Identify the issues of concern;
- Evaluate the concerns from both a technical and subjective perspective, seeking to assign a priority to important issues;
- Amend the outline to incorporate the agreed suggestions;
- Develop a strategy for key issues;
- Provide feedback on the way the comments have been incorporated.
Guidelines for the preparation and review of Environmental Reports, p.9
Scoping is a required step.
Contents of the scoping document
The scoping document should contain:
- objectives and description of the activity;
- the context and setting of the activity;
- public involvement;
Assessment and reporting
Methods for assessment are not specified in the EIA regulations of 2000. The guidelines for preparation and review of environmental reports however, give a general procedure that include impact identification, baseline data collection, prediction, social, health as well as economic and fiscal impacts. Under the impact identification, the guidelines give some advantages and disadvantages of some methods of impact identification including: checklists, matrices, networks, overlays and GIS etc. In case of an EIA, EPA is required under the EIA regulations to ensure public participation.
The Guidelines for the Preparation and Review of Environmental Report indicate that environmental, social, health and economic impacts shall be considered in the EIA report.
Contents of the EIA report
It is advised that an Environmental Report should contain:
- Executive or non-technical summary;
- Description of the objectives of the proposal;
- description of the proposal and its alternatives;
- discussion of the proposal and current land use and policies;
- description of existing and expected conditions;
- evaluation of the impacts for each alternative;
- comparative evaluation of alternatives and identification of the preferred option;
- environmental management plan, monitoring plan and proposed training;
- appendices. For each impact the following aspects should be considered: nature; magnitude; timing; duration; reversibility and likelihood (risk).
A detailed EMP is usually not part of the Environmental Report, but rather a comprehensive outline of the structure of it with a summary of the management principles to be followed. For issues of high risk and uncertainty, details of management should be included in this outline.
The EPA or the provincial EPA are responsible for the review process. The EPA is required to consult a Committee of Experts, Sectoral Advisory Committee, other government agencies, NGOs and the affected public. Review criteria is on a case-by-case basis.
It is advised that the criteria should consider:
- The ToR; existing reviews of EIA reports;
- studies and experiences of the actual impacts of similar activities;
- the quality of the scoping and screening (including the adequacy of the summary and whether the recommendations are clearly stated in the executive summary);
- the completeness of the outline description;
- the alternatives described;
- the baseline study (concise and useful);
- the description of the impacts (detailed probability and significance);
- mitigation measures;
- when monitoring programs are described, the reasons for and costs of the activities should be elaborated in detail.
Generic steps for review are described in the EIA guidelines for preparation and review of environmental reports.
IEE and EIA are reviewed by government experts and experts from other government agencies. NGOs and affected community members are also permitted to review these reports.
The IEE is reviewed within 45 days and the EIA within 90 days.
Integration of EIA into decision-making
EIA approval is separated from the final licence of the commencement of the project. The proponent of any activity listed under schedule I and II of the EPA-IEE and EIA regulations, 2000 needs a formal IEE or EIA approval from the EPA before any project approval.
The decision-making procedure depends on whether private sector or public sector projects are being considered. The final decision on the Environmental Approval for private projects is taken by the responsible authority (EPA, provincial or district authorities in co-operation with other Departments and Agencies).
The EIA approval comes along with conditions for it.
Decisions are justified in writing. Schedule IV of the EIA regulation, 2000 provides a form that EPA uses as decision note.
The EIA guidelines stipulate that a register of decision is made available to the public. It does not however state whether the decision should be published.
Monitoring, Compliance and Enforcement
The proponent is required to submit a monitoring plan as part of the EIA report. Before commencing operation of the project, the proponent should send a confirmation of compliance, accompanied by an Environmental management Plan. After completion of the construction of the project, the proponent is required to submit an annual report on the operational performance of the project, with reference to the conditions of the approval and maintenance and mitigating measures adopted for the project. EPA is responsible for monitoring of conditions of approval and may require additional information from the proponent and can carry out an inspection for this purpose. EPA may cancel the approval, based on the information in the annual report or its inspections.
There are possibilities for external monitoring. In the case of a major or controversial project, the guidelines state it is desirable to establish a monitoring committee, comprising the proponent's project manager and environmental staff, key Government Departments and Agencies, and representatives of the local community.
If the proponent violates the conditions of the license EPA can issue an Environmental Protection Order to take corrective measures, or take the actions itself and recover the costs. The Director-General of an EPA may require the proponent to pay EPA an administrative penalty if the proponent makes an offence against the Environmental Protection Act. If the Offence is related to an IEE or EIA, the penalty may be up to RS 1,000,000 with a daily fine of up to 100,000 for every day the contravention continuous. If the penalty is not paid, enforcement through the Environmental Tribunal is possible. A proponent aggrieved by the final order of the Environmental Tribunal may appeal to the High Court.
In the Guidelines for the Preparation and Review of Environmental Reports, EIA evaluation is mentioned. EIA follow-up is said to be used to improve the knowledge on impact prediction and management so that the quality of the EIA process can be enhanced.
The proponent pays at the time of submission of an IEE or EIA a review fee to the Federal Agency, as fixed in Schedule III of the EIA regulation 2000.
Public participation requirements for EIA process stages
Public consultation should occur in the preparation of the initial IEE, the assessment of impacts, the reviewing stage and decision -making stage and during monitoring. Audits of EIAs for both public as private projects are reviewed by stakeholders and the public after a preliminary review by the responsible authority.
Public participation arrangements
Public participation arrangements are described in detail in the guidelines for public participation.
Public participation guidance
Guidelines for public participation have been issued.
Comments on the EIA report may be written and oral.
Public comments in decision-making
All comments received should, in accordance with the EIA Regulations, 2000 be duly considered, before a decision is made on the EIA. It is not however specified that the level of influence of these comments should be provided.
Timeline for public comments
Public hearing should fall within 30 days of newspaper notice.
Access to information
EIA reports are public documents and the review thereof, including the decisions, is made public. A register of EIA decisions is kept at EPA and is available to the public.
In case of an EIA, the Federal Agency publishes in any English or Urdu national newspaper a public notice that mentions the type of projects, the exact location, the name and address of the proponent and the places where the EIA of the project can be accessed. This notice contains the date, time and place for a public hearing. The public hearing takes place, at least thirty days after publication of the notice. The review and the decision are public documents.
Possibilities for appeal
Pakistan Environmental Protection Act introduced Environmental Tribunals, for serious offences, and Environmental Magistrates, for less serious offences. The Supreme Court and High Courts are also open to any appellant as last resorts.
Decisions that can be appealed
The final approval/ clearance and the decision for project approval can be appealed against.
Who can appeal
Any persons aggrieved by decisions of EPA at Federal or provincial level may appeal with the Environmental Tribunal within 30 days.
Central EIA database
Provincial EPAs maintain separate registers of all IEEs and EIAs. EPA should be informed on the progress of all IEE and EIA processes and adds this information to its own registers.
- Beg AA. Effectiveness of EIA based decision making. Proceedings of Capacity Building Workshop on EIA-A tool to achieve sustainability. Islamabad: Pak-EPA; 2004.
- Nadeem O, Hameed R. A critical review of the adequacy of EIA reports evidence from Pakistan. Trans Eng Comput Technol 2006b;17:200–6.
- Nadeem O and R Hameed (2008) Evaluation of environmental impact assessment system in Pakistan. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Article in press.
Accreditation of consultants
Consultancy is not regularized and licensed.
- A study/proposal currently conducted by UNEP focuses on the problems faced by the EA system regarding:
1) institutional matters and
2) the quality of the environmental assessment reports.
Part of this study is a consultation of sectoral experts and a national consultation session (Ministry of Environment Planning Commission of Pakistan IUCN Pakistan, draft version 2006).
- The World Bank's Strategic Country Environmental Assessment, 2006 identifies several challenges with regard to the required capacity for environmental management in Pakistan. Capacity building for more effective EIAs needs to address four weaknesses:
1) a lack of expert input for technical reviews;
2) a widespread unawareness of requirements and procedures, both in government and the private sector;
3) the lack of a system to identify projects, both public and private, required to submit an EIA;
4) weak enforcement of EIA clearance conditions (WB 2006, p. iv).
Links to laws/regulation
Other relevant links on EIA
S.R.O. 339(I)/2000: http://www.paksearch.com/Government/CORPORATE/Pak_Environ1997.html