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Updated to: 25 February 2015

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Distinguishing features of the EIA/SEA system

Even though EIA is practiced in Myanmar, the legal framework for EIA is yet to be developed. In the Environmental Conservation Law of 2012, a light a reference is made to EIA only. The law promulgates that an EIA system is to be established by the Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry. This Ministry is also charged with implementing the EIA procedure. Regulations determining the EIA procedure have been drafted and are to be issued shortly. Also, detailed draft guidelines that define the EIA process and the contents of the EIA outputs have been prepared. So far, there is no SEA practice in Myanmar and there is no legal framework for it yet.

Administrative system: relevant features

The Republic of the Union of Myanmar is divided into 7 regions and 7 states. The regions can be described as ethnically predominantly Burman, while the states are ethnic minority-dominant. The regions and states are further subdivided into districts. According to the constitution, Naypyidaw shall be a Union Territory under the direct administration of the President. Also, there are 5 Self-Administered Zones and 1 Self-Administered Division (located within the Sagain Region and the Shan State). These are administered by a Leading Body, which has  executive and legislative powers.

The Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MOECAF) is responsible for environmental management issues, among them EIA. It is divided in 6 departments: Planning and Statistics Department, Forest Department, Dry zone Greening Department, Environmental Conservation Department, Survey Department, Myanma Timber Enterprise.


Relevant international conventions

Myanmar has been a party to the Ramsar Convention since 2005 and to the
Convention on Biodiversity since 1994.

Environmental Standards: relevant features

The Environmental Conservation Law of 2012 specifies that the Ministry assigned to peform environmental matters (MOECAF) may stipulate various environmental standards such as water quality standards, atmospheric quality standards, noise and vibration standards, emissions standards, effluent standards and solid waste standards. Such environmental quality standards are currently being prepared by the MOECAF in cooperation with the Core Environment Programme (CEP) of the Greater Mekong Subregion. 

Country specific terms or acronyms

ECC = Environmental Compliance Certificate
ECD = Environmental Conservation Department
IEE = Initial Environmental Examination
MIC = Myanmar Investment Commission
MOCAF = Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry