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Updated to: 26 September 2013Download as PDF
Distinguishing features of the EIA/SEA system
The Bahasa Indonesian term for EIA is AMDAL. Indonesia provided a legal basis for EIA in 1982, and has revised its impact assessment system several times since then, both to reflect institutional changes, and in response to developments in understanding of EIA. Detailed procedural requirements were first put in place in 1986, further refined in 1993, and amended in 1999, 2001, 2006 and 2012.
A key feature of the Indonesian EIA system are the EIA Committees throughout the country, at different levels, that oversee each EIA. The EIA Committee approves the Terms of Reference for an EIA, reviews the EIA report, and undertakes stakeholder consultation. These committees have representation of the relevant authorities, but NGOs or other stakeholder representatives may also be invited to take seat. Another feature of the EIA system are the environmental monitoring and management plans that have to be submitted as part of an EIA.
In 2009 a new Environmental Protection and Management Bill was adopted. This law increases the possibility to take action on infringements of the EIA procedure, and introduced a broadly applicable requirement to undertake SEA for policies, plans and programmes. In 2012, the act was followed by revised regulation for environmental permitting, which als revised the EIA procedure.
EIA falls under the responsibility of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (previously the Ministry of Environment).
Technical Secretary NCEA, compiled from several sources.
Administrative system: relevant features
Up to the late nineties, governance in Indonesia was mainly centralised. It still has very strong central institutes, in charge of policy and legislation. For environmental management the main responsible authority is the Ministry for Environment (KLH). It has an operational arm: the Environmental protection agency (Bapedal), which is turn has offices throughout the country. The 1999 regional autonomy laws set the framework for decentralisation of power. There are four levels of governance: national, provincial (33 provinces), district (Kabupaten) or city (Kota), and community levels (Kacematan, or the smaller units of Desa or Celurahan). EIA responsibilities are now largely delegated to 400-plus units of local government at district or city level.
Amdal Reform and Decentralisation: Opportunities for Inovation, December 2006, World Bank. ADB, Country Environmental Analysis Indonesia, 2005. Wikipedia
Relevant international conventions
Indonesia has been a party to the Ramsar convention since 1992, and a party to the Convention on Biological Diversity since 1994.
Ramsar site, and CBD site.
Environmental Standards: relevant features
The Environmental Protection and Management Law (2009) determines that environmental quality standards shall be developed for water, wastewater, seawater, ambient air, emmission, disturbance, and other relevant issues. Moreover, it requires that standard criteria for damage are being developed. (Paragraph 3 and 4)
Country specific terms or acronyms
- AMDAL = Environmental impact assessment
- ANDAL = EIA report '
- KA-ANDAL = Terms of Reference for EIA report
- RKL = Environmental management plan
- RPL = Environmental monitoring plan
- EMaE-EMoE = Environmental Management/Monitoring Effort
- EPMA = Environmental Protection and Management Act