Indonesia

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EIA profile

Updated to: 14 January 2014

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EIA background

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Country contact on EIA

Contact details for the country contact on EIA.

Department Environmental Impact Assessment
Ministry for Environment and Forestry
A Building 6th Floor
Jl. D.I. Panjaitan Kav 24
Jakarta 13410
Phone: +62 21 8590 4925
website: www.menlh.go.id

History of EIA

Brief description of the history of the EIA system in the country, including when it was introduced and any major milestones in its development.

EIA was officially introduced under the Basic Environmental Law No. 4 of 1982. Government Regulations No. 29 (1986) provided the implementing regulation, and established the EIA system in Indonesia. Since then, the EIA regulation has been regularly revised to reflect institutional changes, and increased understanding of EIA.  In the nineties, reforms of the regulation shifted responsibilities for EIA review, and provided more inclusive provisions for public involvement. After adoption of regional autonomy laws, the Ministry for Environment (now the Ministry of Environment and Forestry) issued decrees to clarify regional mandates for EIA. In 2006 the Ministry of Environment issues two decrees (No. 8 and No 11) to further detail EIA procedures and revise the list of projects subject to EIA. In 2009,  the Environmental Protection and Management Law (Article 22) replaced the original framework law for EIA. In 2012, Environmental Permit regulations were issued under the Environmental Protection and Management Law, which now contain the procedural requirements for EIA.

Year of introduction of EIA legislation

NB: this field is only meant for the world map. It is a hidden cell that is not published on the website. If available, mention the year when detailed national EIA regulations were issued. If such regulations do not exist and if EIA practice is base

1986

Legal framework for EIA

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Framework/Enabling law

Name of first enabling legislation that sets a framework for EIA.

The Basic Environmental Law No. 4 of 1982 introduced EIA into the legal system.

Year of introduction of enabling law

Year when the enabling law for EIA was issued

1982

Approving authority of enabling law

Authority that approved the enabling law for EIA.

Parliament.

First national detailed regulation for EIA

First national detailed regulation (procedural requirements) through which EIA was operationalized.

The Government Regulations No. 29 (1986) established the EIA system.

Year of introduction of first national detailed regulation for EIA

Year when when the first national detailed regulation (procedural requirements) through which EIA was operationalized.

1986

Recent updates and additions to the EIA legislation

Revisions of the EIA provisions in the enabling law or the national detailed EIA regulation (procedural requirements) are named. The year is listed, and the main changes since the first regulation are mentioned, if available. Also, additional EIA-re

The Basic Environmental Law which was the initial enabling law for EIA was replaced by the Environmental Law No. 23 of 1997, whch then in turn was replaced by the Environmental Protection and Management Law 2009.

A number of decrees have been issued on EIA by the Ministry for Environment, including: Decrees no. 22/1999, 40/2000, 41/2000, 17/2001, 86/2002, 8/2006, and 11/2006. They have been replaced by the Environmental Permit Regulations of 2012, which newly define the EIA procedures.

 

Sector specific procedures or regulations on EIA

Any existing sectoral procedural or content regulations are listed here, as well as the authority that issued each.

To be checked

Guidelines

Any government issued guidelines on EIA (general, or sectoral) are listed here, as well as the authority that issued each. Describe the legal status of the guidelines.

  • Some of the decrees that have been issued are also called guidelines.
  • In addition, the Ministry for Environment and Forestry provides guidance on EIA on its website, including examples of EIAs.  (to be checked).

Objective of EIA

The objective of EIA as stated in the above described legal basis.

In the Environmental Protection and Management Law both EIA and SEA are listed as instruments "for preventing pollution and/or damage to the environment".

Scope of EIA application

Describes which types of activities require EIA (public and/or private activities; national and/or foreign initiated project; or all such projects)

There was previously a distinction between EIA requirements for private and public projects, but that was removed in 1999, and EIA applies equally to both.

Exemptions from EIA application

Describes any (groups of) activities identified in the regulation that are exempted from the requirement to do EIA (e.g. military or emergency activities).

An activity can be exempted from the obligation to conduct an EIA if:

  • the location of the activity is within an area that has had an EIA already
  • the location of the activity is within a district/city that has already a detailed spatial plan and/or a district/city strategic area spatial plan
  • the activity is conducted within the framework of a disaster emergency response

For activities which are exempted from EIA, an EMaE-EMoE (environmental monitoring and management study) shall be prepared.

Institutional setting for EIA

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Central EIA authority

Is there a central authority in charge of implementing EIA? Is it independent or linked to a higher body (e.g ministry)? What are its tasks related to EIA?

The Ministry for Environment and Forestry is responsible for overseeing the EIA system. It issues the overriding EIA regulation. At the provincial and district level, more stringent EIA regulation can be developed to complement the national rules.

Other key (governmental) parties involved in EIA, and their roles

Lists other key parties (e.g. a review commission, knowledge institute) that have a role in many or all EIAs.

At each level of EIA implementation , an EIA Appraisal Committee is set up to advice on the EIAs. This Committee approves the Terms of Reference for the EIA, reviews the EIA, once it is completed, and undertakes stakeholder consultation.

At the central level, the Minister of Environment and Forestry sets up a Central EIA  Appraisal Committee. Similarly, at the regional level these tasks are fulfilled by a Provincial EIA Appraisal Commission and a Provincial Technical Team. District/city EIA Appraisal Commissions can also be established at the district level. Each EIA Appraisal Committe has a secretariat and Technical Teams of independent experts that assists the Committe with the reviewing process. Generally, an EIA Appraisal Committee consist of representatives from the following institutions:

  • environmental agencies
  • related technical agencies
  • scientific experts of the field of the studied activity
  • representatives from affected communities
  • environmental organizations

Chapter V of the Environmental Permit Regulations gives more detailed provisions regarding the EIA Appraisal Committees, including which types of EIAs are to be reviewed by which commission. For example, the central EIA Committee reviews EIAs for activities located in more than one province.

Mandate for exemption of EIA obligation

Describes if there is a legal mandate for a competent authority to make exemptions of EIA obligation. And if yes, under which conditions (e.g. national security, disasters or no conditions/when deemed necessary).

Not specified (to be checked).

(De)centralisation of EIA mandates

Describes if EIA mandates are (de)centralised. Vertical decentralization refers to the extent to which the responsibility for EIA processes are delegated by the central government to the provincial or local authorities. Sectoral or horizontal decen

Decision-making on individual EIAs takes place at different levels. Districts are responsible for EIAs within their administrative boundaries. The Mayor or the Chief of the District then takes consent decisions. Provinces are responsible for EIAs for activities covering more than one district. The governor approves the EIA in this case. The Ministry for Environment and Forestry makes decisions on EIA for activities that cover more than one province and for activities that have broad social impacts or security implications.

EIA procedure

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Overview EIA procedure

Characterizes the overall EIA procedure. If relevant, interesting aspects of the EIA procedure are mentioned such as: which procedural steps are part of the EIA procedure? How are they linked to each other? Are there different levels of assessment di

The mandatory screening process determines if an EIA has to be conducted for an activity. It is then decided if a full EIA is required for obtaining an environmental permit, if a Environmental Management/Monitoring Effects (EMaE-EMoE) have to be made or if the activity does not require an environmental permit. For acitivities that require a full EIA, a scoping process which includes the formulation of the Terms of Reference follows. Thereafter, an Environmental Impact Analysis is carried out. Then, an EIA appraisal (review of the EIA documents) is conducted. The EIA appraisal process is an integral part of the Environmental permit application and issuance process. It results in a decision on the environmental feasibility of the project, which leads to the decision on the issuance of the environmental permit. Finally, compliance monitoring is conducted.

Important documents of the EIA process in Indonesia are: Terms of Reference (scoping), EIA report, Decision on Environmental Feasibility, Environmental Permit and monitoring reports.

For activities that require an EMaE-EMoE, an EMaE-EMoE form has to be submitted to the respective authority. The EMaE-EMoE examination follows which results in an recommendation on refusal or approval of the EMaE-EMoE. Finally, the decision on the issuance of the environmental permit is taken and a follow-up on the permit takes place.

Screening

Screening requirement and authority

Describes if a formal screening decision required, and if so, which authority is responsible for this decision. Is this decision published?

There is a screening requirement. At central level the Minister of Environment and Forestry is responsible for the screening decision, at regional level this is the Governor, and at district level the Mayor.

Screening process

Describes the screening process: steps in screening, the stakeholders involved and outcomes of the process, status of screening advice of different stakeholders, etc. Also describes any prescribed methods for screening. If preliminary EIA's / light EIA's / Initial Environmental Evaluations (IEE) are done in this country and which criteria determine whether a preliminary or a full EIA is requested

The Environmental Protection and Management Law of 2009 determines that activities with significant impacts require an EIA. In its Sections 22 and 23 criteria are given for determining impacts that are significant and for identifying which activities thus require an EIA. For projects which do not have significant impacts, an Environmental Management Effort and Environmental Monitoring Effort (EMaE-EMoE) should be prepared.

Provision for sensitive areas

Are specific requirements formulated for environmentally sensitive areas? (e.g. no minimum thresholds, full EIA instead of partial EIA)

No provisions for sensitive areas are made in the Enviornmental Protection and Management Law (2009).

Contents of the starting document

Describes the required content of the starting document (if any) that the proponent should submit to the competent authority for EIA screening. Mentions if the starting document is published.

To be checked

Timeline Screening

Maximum number of (working) days allowed between submission of the starting document and the screening decision.

To be checked

Scoping

Scoping requirement

Is a formal scoping step required as part of the EIA process?

Scoping is a required step of the EIA process.

Scoping process

Describes who carries main responsibility to undertake scoping and what the roles and responsibilities of the involved parties during the process are. Specifically, is there independent formulation and/or review of the scoping document, approval of the scoping document? Are any methods prescribed, e.g. participation, checklists. What guidance is provided?

A distinct review process of the Terms of Reference (ToR) is defined in the Environmental Permit Regulations (2012). The proponent firstly prepares the ToR and submits them to the appropriate license authority. The authority then forwards it to the relevant EIA Appraisal Commission, who reviews the ToR with assistance from the Technical Team. At first, the Commission provides a written statement regarding the administrative completeness of the ToR. Once the ToR are declared to be complete,  the Technical Team reviews the ToR. It may require a revision of the ToR. Once the appraisal of the Technical Team reveals that the ToR are acceptable, the EIA Appraisal Committee will issue an approval of the ToR.

Contents of the scoping document

Explains if there are there specific requirements for the content of the scoping document, and if so, what these are.

The Terms of Reference has to address:

  • scope of the study;
  • type of activities of the project that may cause impact to environment;
  • environmental parameters likely to be affected by the project;
  • method of data collection and analysis;
  • potential and important impact identification; and
  • methods of impact prediction and evaluation.
Timeline scoping

Number of (working) days for the decision on approval of the scoping document by the competent authority.

The Environmental Permit Regulation (2012) requires that after the ToR have been submitted and declared to be complete, the appraisal period of the ToR shall not exceed 30 working days.

Assessment and reporting

Assessment process

Steps and roles of stakeholders in the assessment and status of the input of the stakeholders. Also sets out methods for assessment of the environmental impacts of the activity, if prescribed, and whether the assessment covers environmental, social, economic and/or transboundary effects.

For the preparation of EIA documents, three different types of study approaches are distinguished: a single study, an integrated study, a study based on the area. The initiator can prepare the EIA itself or with the help of EIA consultants.

The regulation does require the assessment to be comprehensive,  taking into account biological, geo-physical/chemical, socio-economic, cultural, and public health aspects.

The AMDAL Process and the Equator Principles, Common themes and apparent differences, by Dr. Karlheinz Spitz and Dr. Yahya Husin, 2009.

Environmental Permit Regulation 2012

Contents of the EIA report

Explains what should be contained in the EIA report. Specifies if a potential Environmental Management Plan is part of the EIA report or if it is a separate document that contributes to the EIA process.

According to Section 25 of the Environmental Protection and Management Law (2009), the EIA report shall contain:

  • study on the impact of the planned undertaking and / or activity
  • an evaluation of the activities and or around the location of the planned activity
  • Suggestions and inputs of the affected communities
  • the estimated amount and significance of the impact that may occur if the planned activity is carried out
  • a holistic evaluation of the impacts to determine the if the activity is environmentally feasible
  • an EMP and a monitoring plan

If an EMaE-EMoE is prepared, a form with the following information is required:

  • identity of the initiator
  • Business and/or activity plans
  • environmental impacts that would occur
  • environmental management and montoring plan

Review

Review process

Overview of the review process, including: steps in the process and roles of the stakeholders, status of the input of the stakeholders. Is the process open to public? Review method: internal review, external review, panel/commission (permanent or temporary), are the review results documented? Are the review criteria general or case by case? Are the review results documented? Is a potential review

The EIA documents/EMaP-EMoP are reviewed by the respective EIA Appraisal Commission. Firstly the Committee checks the documents for administrative completeness. Then a technical team is commissioned to appraise the documents and presents its results to the EIA Appraisal Commission. Thereafter, an EIA Appraisal Committee meeting is held and a recommendation regarding the EIA and EMaP-EMoP appraisal results is formulated. This may be a recommendation of environmental feasibility or environmental unfeasibility. The recommendation is then sent to the respective authority (the Minister, Governor or Mayor), which takes the final decision regarding the environmental feasibility of the activity.

Environmental Permit Regulations 2012

Review expertise

Describes if the EIA is checked by external parties, and if so to what extent these represent required disciplines/expertise. Also sets out if measures have been taken to ensure that reviewers are impartial?

The mechanism of the EIA appraisal Commission, and its technical advisory commission, allows the involvement of various (independent) experts in review. The regulations do not require that the advice of the EIA Appraisal Commission is followed by the Competent Authority.

Timeline Review

Number of (working) days for review of the EIA by the competent authority.

Review of the EIA report can take a maximum of 75 working days.

Decision-making

Integration of EIA into decision-making

Describes what kind of decision-making processes the EIA is intended to support. We look specifically at the decision on EIA approval, and how this relates to envirionmental approval for the project, and other project approval decisions (permits) needed before a project can proceed. This category describes which decisions are influenced by EIA and how they are linked to each other.

After the EIA appraisal process has been finalized, the competent authority determines on the basis of recommendations by the EIA Appraisal Commission if the activity is environmentally feasible or not. Simultaneously, the initiator submits an application for an environmental permit to the authority. The EIA documents have to be added to this application. The competent authority then issues the environmental permit in conjunction with the environmental feasibility decision. An environmental permit is a prerequisite for obtaining a business or activity license.

Environmental Permit Regulation 2012

Competent authority

Describes which authority/authorities is/are responsible for each of the main decision-making processes on EIA (EIA approval, environmental approval and/or project approval). It is explained if those decisions are taken by the same or different authorities.

Depending on the project, the competent authority for the decision on the environmental acceptability is the Minister (central level), the Governor  (regional level) or the Mayor or Chief of the District (district level). The competent authority takes the environmental feasibility decision as well as the decision on the issuance of the environmental permit.

Decision documents

Mentions if the decision (on EIA approval and/or environmental approval) is linked to certain documents (e.g. environmental management plan, permit conditions) in order to facilitate the management of environmental risks during project implementation. Also describes if commitments of the proponent are incorporated into legally binding instruments.

According to Section 32 if the Environmental Permit Regulations (2012) decision on the environmental feasibility of an activity contains the following elements:

  • basic consideration of the issuance of the decision
  • statement of environmental feasibility
  • requirements and obligations of the initiator
  • obligations that stakeholders shall perform

An environmental permit contains the requirements and obligations specified in the environmental feasibility decision, requirements set by the Minister, Governor or Mayor, and an expiration date of the environmental permit (Section 48).

Decision justification

Sets out requirements for justification of the consideration of the EIA information in decision-making (on EIA approval, environmental approval and/or project approval).

It is not clear if the environmental permit decision must be justified with reference to EIA information. The competent authority is advised to take into account the recommendations of the EIA appraisal commission when taking the decision on the environmental feasibility of the activity though. This decision has to be justified by the authority.

Decision publication

Does the decision (on EIA approval, environmental approval and/or project approval) have to be published? Also, is the decision justification published as well?

Section 39 of the Environmental Protection and Management Law (2009) determines that the decision on an environmental licence has to be announced.

Timeline decision-making

Maximum number of (working) days available to the competent authority to make the EIA based decision (EIA approval, environmental clearance and/or project approval).

Review of the EIA report and the decision on the environmental acceptability can take a maximum of 75 working days.

Monitoring, Compliance and Enforcement

Compliance monitoring

Is compliance monitoring required to check if the project is implemented as described in the EIA documents and/or if mitigation of environmental impacts complies with applicable standards and other measures set out in the EIA documents? Who is responsible for ensuring compliance? How does this authority ensure compliance (for example, through inspections)? And what requirements are there for the p

The Environmental Protection and Management Law (2009) requires the competent authorities to conduct compliance monitoring. Hence, the Minister (central level), Governor (regional level) or the Mayor or district chief (district level) supervise the compliance of the proponent with the enviornmental permit conditions. According to the Environmental Permit Regulations (2012), the must submit a report on the implementation of the environmental permit requirements every 6 months (Section 53). The monitoring reports are submitted to the respective authority. Furthermore, the proponent has to submit a monitoring plan as part of the EIA report.

External monitoring

Are there monitoring requirements that involve external parties, such as citizen monitoring (for example, through a complaints procedure), or third party auditing?

No information

Non-compliance penalties

Are there penalties that the authority responsible for compliance can apply if environmental conditions are not met? What are these? (for example, fines, suspension of license)

With adoption of the new Environmental Protection and Management Law in 2009, the penalties associated with infringement of the EIA regulation have increased. Transgressors can be fined, but also risk jail sentences. For example, an individual preparing EIA document without the required certification can serve a jail sentence of 1 to 3 years and can be fined between 1 to 3 billions IDR. Similar jail terms can be given to an individual carrying out a project without the required environmental acceptability approval. (To be checked)

If a violation of the environmental permit takes place, administrative sanctions are taken by the Minister, Governor, or Mayor. These sanctions comprise of written warnings, force by the government, the freezing of the environmental permit and the revocation of the environmental permit. An environmental permit may be cancelled if:

  • the required documents submitted in the application for the permit  contain legal flaws, errors, misuse and untruthfulness and/or falsification of data, documents and information
  • if requirements as determined through the decision on the environmental feasibility or the recommendation on the Environmental Management/Monitoring Efforts are not met
  • if obligations set out in the EIA or Environmental Management/Monitoring Efforts documents are not fulfilled

Section 40 of the Law further determines that in case the environmental licence is revoked, the licence for the undertaking shall be cancelled.

Environmental Protection and Management Law 2009

Payment system

Is the proponent required to pay a fee when applying for an EIA? Is this fee linked to a permitting fee, or separate? If yes, when is this paid and to whom (to the agency that issues the license or to a central agency)?

 

 

 

Public participation

Public participation requirements for EIA process stages

Describes for which of the EIA process stages public participation is required.

At the start of the EIA process, the competent authority is required to inform the public about their business and/or activity plans, so that the public can provide comments on them. Public consultation is thus required already prior to the preparation of the Terms of Reference. Also, the public should be involved while the EIA document is prepared. Moreoever, representatives of affected communities are members of the EIA Appraisal Commissions. They are thus involved in the review process of the ToR and the EIA report. Finally, the public can also get involved in the decision-making process as the competent firstly announces the environmental permit application of the initiator. The public has then the opportunity to provide their opinion to the competent authority. Finally, the environmental permit decision is also announced to the public.

Environmental Permit Regulations (2012)

Public participation guidance

Has any guidance on participation been provided?

Guidelines for public announcement and public involvement in EIA have been issued in 2000 by the central Environment Agency Bapedal (No. KepDal 08/2000).

Access to information

Which of the information that is generated in the EIA process is available to the public? Specifically, which reports and decision statements?

The application for an environmental licence and a decision on the enviornmental licence is announced.

Information dissemination

How can the public receive the information that is publicly available? Are there public announcement on the proceedings? How/where are these published? Is information made available locally? Is information sent on request? etc.

The Environmental Permit regulations (2012) stipulate that the environmental permit applications shall be announced through multi media and/or a bulletin board at the activity site. Furthermore, the environmental permit decision shall be announced through mass media or multimedia.

Timeline for public comments

The number of (working) days available for the public to make comments on the EIA decision document.

Before the preparation of the Terms of Reference, the public has 10 working days after the public announcement of the planned activity to provide comments and their opinion. After the announcement of an environmental permit application, the public has also 10 working days to provide advice and opinions to the respective authority.

Costs for public

Are there any specified costs public parties will incur if they partake in EIA?(e.g. costs for the receiving report, costs of losing an appeal, etc. Costs associated with travel to meetings or such are not included here)

To be checked.

Public comments

What options do the public have to provide their comments. Should comments be written, or may they also be verbal? To which agency should they provide their submissions?

Public comments have to be submitted in writing to the Competent Authority, or can be presented to the EIA Appraisal Commission verbally.

Public comments in decision-making

Do the EIA and/or project approval decisions have to be justified on the basis of public participation results? Do legal texts indicate how public participation results should be used and to which decision-making processses they should contribute?

In the justification for the decision on environmental acceptability, the Competent Authority has to explain how the results of consultation were taken into account.

Legal recourse

Possibilities for appeal

What are the legal recourse options to challenge EIA decisions are provided for within the legal framework?

The legal recourse options have expanded with the adoption of the Environmental Protection and Management Law. (To be further added to)

Decisions that can be appealed

Which EIA decisions can be appealed?

To be checked.

Who can appeal

Who can make an appeal (in other words, has legal standing)?

To be checked.

EIA practice

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Annual no. of EIAs

Gives an estimation for the number of full EIAs that are produced annually in this country.

To be checked.

Central EIA database

Is there a central database or library where information on EIAs is kept (i.e. where all EIAs are registered and/or copies are archived). If so, what is kept there and is this information publicly accessible?

To be checked.

Practice reviews

Any EIA practice review studies that have been done (by governmental agencies or others) are listed here. Where relevant, links to studies are included, and the main conclusions of the studies are summarised.

  • From 2004 - 2006 the Ministry of Environment undertook an AMDAL Reform and Decentralisation project with World Bank Support. This project included a review of EIA practice, on the basis of a series of case-studies. There is a project website with project documents.

Accreditation of consultants

Is there and accreditation system operational in the country to certify consultants to do EIAs?

The Environmental Permit Regulations (2012) determine that a person drafting an EIA is required to have an EIA drafter certificate, which is obtained through a competency test.

Professional bodies

Professional bodies relevant to EIA practice in the country, such as EIA Associations, Environmental Expert Associations, etc are listed here.

Capacity development

Ongoing training programmes (including professional and academic training) and major training events held in the past (with focus on recent events) are mentioned here.

  • From 2004 - 2006 the Ministry of Environment undertook an AMDAL Reform and Decentralisation project with World Bank Support. This project includes a range of training and discussion events, as well as developments or proposals for improvement of EIA regulation. It had a specific component focused on public participation. There is a project website with project documents.

EIA links

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Links to laws/regulation

Any relevant links to laws or regulations are included here.

 

Other relevant links on EIA

Any other relevant links (for example to country specific guidance documents) are included here.