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Updated to: 27 August 2013Download as PDF
Distinguishing features of the EIA/SEA system
The Environmental Conservation Act (ECA) of 2001 sets the legislative framework for EIA and SEA (in the form of EIA for policy, plans and programmes). SEA, however, is not practiced in Sudan. For EIA no national EIA regulations exist to define procedural requirements. The ECA puts an emphasis on decentralized governance as it provides for Environmental State Councils that should be formed in each state. It is foreseen that those councils develop their on EIA regulation but only two states have formed such councils so far.
Administrative system: relevant features
Sudan has three levels of authority: the national level with the Government of National Unity (GONU), the state level with state governments that are autonomous, and the locality level. In principle, states and localities have the power to adjust national legislation to suit the local context, in the form of state legislation and local orders. Legislative bodies at both levels pass such laws and local orders with the provision that they do not contradict national laws. Some federal legislation also gives authority to state governments to define by-laws, which provide more concrete guidance on how legislation can be applied. A noted exception is the Khartoum State Environment Law, which is based on the National Environment Law of 2001. The high level of decentralisation of powers to the states is envisioned in the Interim Constitution of the Republic of Sudan of 2005, which reflects the Comprehensive Peace Accord (CPA). The interim National constitution allocates uniform responsibilities to all states.
Prior to the 9th of July 2011, the Republic of Sudan was composed of 25 states and there was an additional Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS). 10 southern states now form part of the independent Republic of South Sudan. In 2012, two states were created within the Darfur region, so that there is a total of 17 states now.
Environmental legislation in Sudan is also embodied in various sectors legislation of the different ministries. Each Ministry or department is charged with some environmental responsibilities.
Interim National Constitution of the Republic of Sudan UNEP, Environmental Governance in Sudan (2012): http://www.unep.org/sudan/ El Khitma El Awad, 2012. Presentation Strategic, Social and Environmental Assessment Workshop, HCENR.
Relevant international conventions
Sudan ratified the convention on Biodiversity in 1994. It is also a contracting party to the Ramsar convention since 2005.
Convetion on biodiversity and Ramsar convention websites
Environmental Standards: relevant features
There are over 150 natural resources laws and sectoral regulations dealing with health, water supply, land tenure, game, protected areas, fisheries and marine and other natural resources.
There is also a National plan for Environmental Management in post conflict Sudan (2008).
Country specific terms or acronyms
GONU=Government of National Unity
GOSS=Government of Southern Sudan
CPA=Comprehensive Peace Accord
MEFPD=Ministry of Environment, Forests and Physical Development
HCENR=Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources