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Updated to: 27 August 2013

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Distinguishing features of the EIA/SEA system

EIA has been firmly in place in Egypt since the late nineties. Institutional, administrative and regulatory details for EIA are comprehensive, and a range of sectoral EIA guidelines is available. The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) oversees the EIA system,  but sectoral ministries and governing bodies are the competent administrative authorities for EIA. There are no formal provisions for SEA.

ECA, 2005, Review of the Application of Environmental Impact Assessment in Selected African Countries

Administrative system: relevant features

Egypt's government system is strongly centralized. Administratively, Egypt is divided into 27 Governorates, each headed by a Governor. Within their districts, local government units establish and manage all public utilities, provide services, and designate industrial areas.

At national level the Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs is responsible for the management of the environment. It has been established in 1997. Its executive arm at central level is the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA).

Relevant international conventions

Egypt has been a party to the Ramsar Convention since 1988. It is also a party to the Convention on Biodiversity by ratification since 1994.

Ramsar and Convention for Biodiveristy websites

Environmental Standards: relevant features

There are a number of Environmental standards established in Egypt. For air quality articles 34 to 74 of law 1994/4 define thresholds for the air pollution that workers can be exposed to. Entrepreneurs who wish to export also have comply with international and national emission standards. Furthermore, standards exist for effluent emmission, noise levels, solid waste and water quality. There are also environmnetal standards provided specifically for oil and gas exctraction. (To be confirmed with EEAA).

Country specific terms or acronyms

  • MSEA = Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs
  • EEAA = Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency
  • CAA = Competent Administrative Authorities