|Profile||General | EIA profile | SEA profile|
|See also||Webpages (0) | Projects (1) | Library (4)|
Updated to: 25 February 2015Download as PDF
Country contact on EIA
Contact details for the country contact on EIA.
Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs
Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency
Address: 30 Misr Helwan El-Zyrae Road, Maadi, Cairo
Tel: (202) 5256452
Fax: (202) 5256490
Web site: www.eeaa.gov.eg
History of EIA
Brief description of the history of the EIA system in the country, including when it was introduced and any major milestones in its development.
Environmental Impact Assessment was introduced with Egypt's Environmental Protection law in 1994. Since then, the EIA system has been continuously reviewed and refined. In 2002, EIA procedures have been updated and EIA lists and forms were issued. Law no. 4/1994 requires continuous improvement of the EIA system as it should be reviewed every 5 years.
Year of introduction of EIA legislation
NB: this field is only meant for the world map. It is a hidden cell that is not published on the website. If available, mention the year when detailed national EIA regulations were issued. If such regulations do not exist and if EIA practice is base
Legal framework for EIA
Year of introduction of enabling law
Year when the enabling law for EIA was issued
The Environmental Protection Law (Law no. 4 of 1994) requires EIA for new establishments.
Approving authority of enabling law
Authority that approved the enabling law for EIA.
Approved by the president and the people's assembly.
Year of introduction of first national detailed regulation for EIA
Year when when the first national detailed regulation (procedural requirements) through which EIA was operationalized.
The Executive Regulations of Law no. 4, issued in 1995, provide more details on the provisions for EIA in the law.
Approving authority of first national detailed regulation for EIA
The authority that approved the first national detailed regulation (procedural requirements) through which EIA was operationalized.
The executive regulations have been issued as a prime minister's Decree (No. 338).
Recent updates and additions to the EIA legislation
Revisions of the EIA provisions in the enabling law or the national detailed EIA regulation (procedural requirements) are named. The year is listed, and the main changes since the first regulation are mentioned, if available. Also, additional EIA-re
The 1994 law was amended by resolution no. 1741 in 2005 and also by Law No. 9 of 2009.
Some provisions of the Executive Regulation of Law 4 were amended by Prime Minister's Decree No. 1741 of 2005.
Remark: The Executive Regulations of 2005 are only available in Arabic, their content could thus not be considered for this country profile. The Arabic version of the regulations can be found here.
Current enabling legislation for EIA
Name of current enabling legislation for EIA and link to it.
Law No. 9 of 2009
Current national detailed regulation for EIA
Name of current national detailed regulation for EIA and link to it.
Prime Minister's Decree No. 1741 of 2005
Any government issued guidelines on EIA (general, or sectoral) are listed here, as well as the authority that issued each. Describe the legal status of the guidelines.
Guidelines for EIA were issued in 1994, by the EEAA. In 2009, the EEAA has issued the second edition of the General Guidelines of Principles and Procedures of EIA.
Moreover, sectoral EIA guidelines exist for:
- Oil and Gas Sector;
- Cement Manufacturing Plants;
- Pharmaceutical Plants;
- Land Reclamation Projects;
- Assessment of Urban Development;
- Development of Ports, Harbours and Marinas;
- Municipal Waste Water Treatment Works; and
- Industrial Estates Development
The guidelines can be accessed via the following link.
Objective of EIA
The objective of EIA as stated in the above described legal basis.
As stated in the law, the objective of EIA is to study and analyze the environmental feasibility of proposed projects, whose construction or activities might affect the safety of the environment.
Scope of EIA application
Describes which types of activities require EIA (public and/or private activities; national and/or foreign initiated project; or all such projects)
EIA is required for both governmental and private activities.
Exemptions from EIA application
Describes any (groups of) activities identified in the regulation that are exempted from the requirement to do EIA (e.g. military or emergency activities).
No exemptions specified (To be confirmed).
Institutional setting for EIA
Central EIA authority
Is there a central authority in charge of implementing EIA? Is it independent or linked to a higher body (e.g ministry)? What are its tasks related to EIA?
The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) under the Ministry for Environment is the central authority on EIA. Main responsibilities of the EEAA is to set the requirements and criteria to undertake EIAs and to issue EIA guidelines. It is further responsible for the review of the EIA reports.
Other key (governmental) parties involved in EIA, and their roles
Lists other key parties (e.g. a review commission, knowledge institute) that have a role in many or all EIAs.
While the EEAA supervises the application of the law, sectoral ministries and governing bodies are the competent administrative authorities for EIA. These Competent Administrative Authorities (CAA) have executive powers in the EIA process. They issue licences for project construction and operation. As EIA is considered to be one of the requirements for receiving licences, the CAA are invovled in the EIA process. They are involved in the initial screening according to lists. They also receive EIA documents, check the EIA documents concerning the location of the activity and forward them to the EEAA for review. The CAA are the main interface between the project proponent and the EIA system. The CAA also provide technical assistance to the proponents and ensure the approval of the project site. Annex 3 of the EIA guidelines provides examples for CAAs which include the following types of entities: Ministries, Governorates, entities, authorities and sectors.
Line ministries are also consulted where applicable. A permanent review committee supports the review process. It consists of three experts that are nominated by the Chief Executive Officer of the EEAA. Public consultation is not a requirement, so public stakeholders are less prominent in EIA.
Mandate for exemption of EIA obligation
Describes if there is a legal mandate for a competent authority to make exemptions of EIA obligation. And if yes, under which conditions (e.g. national security, disasters or no conditions/when deemed necessary).
Not specified (To be confirmed).
(De)centralisation of EIA mandates
Describes if EIA mandates are (de)centralised. Vertical decentralization refers to the extent to which the responsibility for EIA processes are delegated by the central government to the provincial or local authorities. Sectoral or horizontal decen
Manadate for EIA partially devolved to the sectoral ministries or agencies, referred to as Competent Administrative Authorities, who have executive powers for EIA. They receive the applications and take the decision on approval or rejection of the activity.
Screening requirement and authority
Describes if a formal screening decision required, and if so, which authority is responsible for this decision. Is this decision published?
Screening is a legally required step. The Competent Administrative Authority receives the application documents and officially notifies the proponent about the screening decision.
Describes the screening process: steps in screening, the stakeholders involved and outcomes of the process, status of screening advice of different stakeholders, etc. Also describes any prescribed methods for screening. If preliminary EIA's / light EIA's / Initial Environmental Evaluations (IEE) are done in this country and which criteria determine whether a preliminary or a full EIA is requested
Screening directions are given in both the regulation and the EIA guidance. The Executive Regulations (Annex 2) contain a lists that identifies projects which must be subjected to an EIA based on:
- type of activities performed (here the list refers to types of projects as identified by other laws such as the law on tourist establishment or the law concerning mines and quarries);
- extent of natural resources exploitation, especially water, agricultural lands , and mineral wealth;
- location; and
- type of energy used to operate.
The guideline then separates the projects that are subject to EIA into three categories, each requiring a different level of EIA. The categories are are based on the severity of possible environmental impacts and location of the establishment and its proximity to residential settlements:
- Category A: projects with minimum environmental impacts.
- Category B: projects with potential adverse environmental impacts.
- Category C: projects with have highly adverse environmental impacts.
Illustrative lists are prepared which show examples of projects for each category and criteria are given to determine to which category an activity shall be allocated. Furthermore, the guidelines provide for specific cases where another classification approach has to be followed. Such activities can be projects in environmentally sensitive areas, projects that are included in a development for which an integrated EIA has been prepared and expansion of existing facilities/projects. The three categories differ in the requirements of analysis and assessment.
The proponent submits a letter of intent to undertake the activity to the CAA. This application should be accompanied by Form A in case of Category A projects, Form B for Category B projects and a full EIA report in case of Category C projects.
The CAA send the application to the EEAA for review and advice on approval, and conditions for approval. For Category A and B projects, the screening decision can be combined with the project approval decision. Based on Form A, Category A projects may be approved with conditions or directed to follow the procedure for Category B (meaning that additional information is required). Category A can be rejected, but not on the basis of environmental reasons only. Category B projects may, after review of the information in Form B, be rejected, approved with conditions or requested to proceed with a full EIA ('scoped EIA study').
As Category C projects are required to submit a full EIA report at this early stage, screening is effectively done by the proponent. The CAA and EEAA then proceed to review the EIA report on its quality.
Provision for sensitive areas
Are specific requirements formulated for environmentally sensitive areas? (e.g. no minimum thresholds, full EIA instead of partial EIA)
Annex 2 of the executive regulations of Law no. 4 makes provision for certain sensitive areas. EIA is required for activities:
- located on the Nile banks, its branches and the main canals,
- within tourist and monument areas,
- within areas which are densely populated,
- on sea shores, and lakes; or
- within the Natural Reserve Areas.
Matching these provisiosn with the lists in the guidelines for EIA shows that projects for hotel or resort facilities within these sensitive areas are listed within Category C.
Contents of the starting document
Describes the required content of the starting document (if any) that the proponent should submit to the competent authority for EIA screening. Mentions if the starting document is published.
The application document (screening Form A) for Category A projects need to contain information on:
- the location of the project;
- description of the area where the project is proposed;
- products and by-products, types of power supply, raw materials used and source of water (public, groundwater, surface water), wastes resulting from the activity;
- projects starting dates for construction and operation;
- gaseous emissions, dust, temperature conditions and methods of control;
- methods of protection and control of noise; and
- description of any other mitigation measure.
For Category B projects (screening form B) require more information. In addition to the above:
- a more detailed description of the area of the project, including available infrastructure,
- methods of discharge of waste; and
- a preliminary analysis of environmental impact during operation and methods or mitigation, covering:
a) impacts on the air quality
b) impacts on quality and availability of water
c) impacts on soil quality and fertility
d) visiual impacts
e) noise impacts
f) other significant impacts
g) description of other measures
h) measures undertaken to protect the health and safety of workers and fire prevention facilities.
Maximum number of (working) days allowed between submission of the starting document and the screening decision.
The EEAA reviews the application within 60 days. There is however no information on the maximum number of days for the CAA to process the application documents to the EEAA and communiate the outcome of the screening.
Is a formal scoping step required as part of the EIA process?
The scoping requirements depend on type of project.
Describes who carries main responsibility to undertake scoping and what the roles and responsibilities of the involved parties during the process are. Specifically, is there independent formulation and/or review of the scoping document, approval of the scoping document? Are any methods prescribed, e.g. participation, checklists. What guidance is provided?
The EEAA usually develops the ToR if a scoped EIA study is required (for Category B projects). For C-list projects, the Proponent conducts individual scoping based on sectoral guidelines. The ToR are then reviewed by EEAA.
Contents of the scoping document
Explains if there are there specific requirements for the content of the scoping document, and if so, what these are.
The contents of the scoping document are depended on the ToR set by the compentent authority.
Number of (working) days for the decision on approval of the scoping document by the competent authority.
Assessment and reporting
Steps and roles of stakeholders in the assessment and status of the input of the stakeholders. Also sets out methods for assessment of the environmental impacts of the activity, if prescribed, and whether the assessment covers environmental, social, economic and/or transboundary effects.
The Environment Law no. 4 (1994) contains no requirements on the assessment process. Law No. 9 of 2009 promulgates that the study shall be carried out according to the elements, designs, specifications, bases and pollutant loads as determined by the EEAA in coordination with the competent administrative bodies.
The sector guidelines suggest consultants conducting the EIA study should collect the views of relevant government agencies, NGOs and the public. Assesment includes both social, environmental and economic effects of the proposed activity.
Contents of the EIA report
Explains what should be contained in the EIA report. Specifies if a potential Environmental Management Plan is part of the EIA report or if it is a separate document that contributes to the EIA process.
The EIA report should in accordance with the sectoral guidelines contain:
- an executive summary;
- policy , legal and administrative framework;
- description of the proposed project;
- description of the environment;
- significant environmental impacts;
- analysis of alternatives;
- environmental management plan (incl. monitoring programm, description of mitigation measures);
- publich consultation;
- list of references;
- appendices: list of environmental assessment prepares; records of attendees in public consultation meetings, agenda of public consultation meetings
Overview of the review process, including: steps in the process and roles of the stakeholders, status of the input of the stakeholders. Is the process open to public? Review method: internal review, external review, panel/commission (permanent or temporary), are the review results documented? Are the review criteria general or case by case? Are the review results documented? Is a potential review
The CAA or the licensing body receives the EIA report and registers it and checks whether the information included in the scoped EIA study complies with required information according to the ToR or in case of a black list project it checks if the information in the EIA is according to the relevant sector guidelines. Then, the EEAA evaluates the report. The EIA guidelines of 2009 indicate that the review is undertaken by the Central Department for EIA of the EEAA. The public can provide comments during the review process. Review criteria are issued for some sectors, including the oil and gas one.
Finally, the EEAA submits its advice to the CAA or the licensing authority and the CAA communicates the results of the review to the proponent through a registered letter.
Betey C.B. & Godfred E., 2013. Environmental Impact Assessment and Sustainable Development in Africa: A critical review. Environment and Natural Resources Research. Vol 3 No. 2, 37-51.
Describes if the EIA is checked by external parties, and if so to what extent these represent required disciplines/expertise. Also sets out if measures have been taken to ensure that reviewers are impartial?
EEAA uses internal reviewers and independent consultants for the review process. The EIA guidelines specify that for the review of complete EIAs, EEAA can make use of technical expertise from the Egyption universities and research centres.
EIA guidelines of 2009
Number of (working) days for review of the EIA by the competent authority.
The EEAA has 30 days to review the EIA report.
Integration of EIA into decision-making
Describes what kind of decision-making processes the EIA is intended to support. We look specifically at the decision on EIA approval, and how this relates to envirionmental approval for the project, and other project approval decisions (permits) needed before a project can proceed. This category describes which decisions are influenced by EIA and how they are linked to each other.
The final results of the review process done by EEAA can be the following:
- Approval of the EIA study/form, while indicating the environmental requirements with which the project propnent should comply
- Objection of the EIA and a recommendation to refuse the project. Reasons for objection usually are related to environmental impacts of the project and the maximum carrying capacity for pollution in the project area.
- Further requests for the proponent
The EEAA gives thus, on the basis of the EIA report, recommendations to the competent authorities regarding whether the project should be approved or not. The law and the guidelines state that projects have to be subjected to EIA before a permit can be issued. An EIA approval is one of the requirements for issuing a project license.
Law no 4. (1994) article 19 and EIA Guidelines (2009)
Describes which authority/authorities is/are responsible for each of the main decision-making processes on EIA (EIA approval, environmental approval and/or project approval). It is explained if those decisions are taken by the same or different authorities.
The EEAA approves the EIA and makes recommendations to the Competent Administrative Authorities (CAA), which decide on the approval of a project. Moreover, a high committee decides on particular projects.
Mentions if the decision (on EIA approval and/or environmental approval) is linked to certain documents (e.g. environmental management plan, permit conditions) in order to facilitate the management of environmental risks during project implementation. Also describes if commitments of the proponent are incorporated into legally binding instruments.
The EEAA formulate conditions of the approval, with which the proponent has to comply with.
Sets out requirements for justification of the consideration of the EIA information in decision-making (on EIA approval, environmental approval and/or project approval).
Does the decision (on EIA approval, environmental approval and/or project approval) have to be published? Also, is the decision justification published as well?
Maximum number of (working) days available to the competent authority to make the EIA based decision (EIA approval, environmental clearance and/or project approval).
Monitoring, Compliance and Enforcement
Is compliance monitoring required to check if the project is implemented as described in the EIA documents and/or if mitigation of environmental impacts complies with applicable standards and other measures set out in the EIA documents? Who is responsible for ensuring compliance? How does this authority ensure compliance (for example, through inspections)? And what requirements are there for the p
The proponent is advised keep a register to record the impact of the established activities (Environmental Record). However, a monitoring plan is not mandatory by law.
The generic EIA guidelines state that a mitigation plan and a monitoring programme should be developed as part of the EIA, and are submitted with the EIA study. The mitigation plan should propose measures and also provide information on all the costs and cost effectiveness of implementing these measures as well as considerations of compensation to effected parties for those impacts that cannot be mitigated. The plan includes measures for emergency response.
The EIA Guidelines further specify that CAA follows-up and ensures the implementation of the decision and related conditions. Before the CAA grant the operation license, they review the requirements that the facility should abide with through checking the EIA approval. Also a field visit is then undertaken to check the compliance with the requirements of the approval.
Law No. 9 of 2009
EIA guidelines of 2009
Are there monitoring requirements that involve external parties, such as citizen monitoring (for example, through a complaints procedure), or third party auditing?
The EEAA is mandated to follow up entries in the register kept by the proponent to ensure that it conforms to the facts, to take samples as required and to conduct appropriate tests to determine the impact of the activities on the environment and the extent of its compliance with the conditions.
Are there penalties that the authority responsible for compliance can apply if environmental conditions are not met? What are these? (for example, fines, suspension of license)
In case of violation the EEAA notifies the CAA to direct the owner of the establishment to rectify the violations. If the owner fails to comply within 60 days EEAA is entitled, in agreement with the CAA, to take legal and judicial procedures, such as halting the violating activity until compliance is ensured again.
Law No. 9 if 2009
Are there any requirements to monitor if the impacts in reality are as they were predicted in the EIA, with the purpose of evaluating the EIA itself and improving future EIA practice?
Is the proponent required to pay a fee when applying for an EIA? Is this fee linked to a permitting fee, or separate? If yes, when is this paid and to whom (to the agency that issues the license or to a central agency)?
Public participation requirements for EIA process stages
Describes for which of the EIA process stages public participation is required.
Public participation is not required in law no. 4 but the sector guidelines state that participation of local NGOs, and of those affected by the activity in the assessment is important. For example, the guidelines on urban development state that urban devleopment agencies shoul be consulted and that the outcome should be inlcuded in the EIA report.
Moreoever, the general guidelines state that the involvement of the public and concerned entities is mandatory for Category C projects during the EIA planning and implementation phases. According to the EIA guidelines, consultation has to be undertaken during the scoping phase and after the preparation of the draft EIA.
Public participation arrangements
Relevant information regarding the arrangements for public participation are provided here (e.g. who is responsible for it, who is consulted, does the legislation mention consultation or participation, for which project should consultations be held, are public hearings held etc.)
Tekstverwerker, ftbInformation_uk, Druk ALT 0 voor hulp
The EIA guidelines (2009) provide information on public participation arrangements and methodologies. Before the public participation process is started, a plan that indicates the methodology of public consultation should be formulated by the proponent. This plan is then discussed with EEAA.
During the scoping phase individual meetings with the concerned parties can be held of unified meetings. The stakeholder are then informed about the project and the aspects to be addressed in the study. Then the stakeholders discuss their opinion on the scope of the study. Results of individual meetings are summarized in a report, which is then discussed with EEAA to find an agreement on the final study content. In case of a unified meeting, an agreement on the study content is reached during the meeting.
Public participation during the review phase of the draft EIA report takes place as a hearing session which involves representatives of all concerned parties. The participants will receive an executive summary of the study 15 days before the session. During the meeting, the results of the study and the mitigation measures are presented. A discussion follows where objections can be made regarding the presented mitigation measures.
Access to information
Which of the information that is generated in the EIA process is available to the public? Specifically, which reports and decision statements?
It is not required by law no. 4 to publice the information on the EIA procedure nor to publish the outcomes of the EIA.
The EIA guidelines, however, state that a technical summary of the draft EIA report should be disclosed to all concerned parties, previously to the hearing session during the review process. Furthermore, the final EIA report is made available.
How can the public receive the information that is publicly available? Are there public announcement on the proceedings? How/where are these published? Is information made available locally? Is information sent on request? etc.
According to the EIA guidelines (2009), the final EIA report will be stored at EEAA's central library or the of the RBO of the projects region. Moreover, the executive summary of the final EIA report is available on the website of EEAA.
The EEAA decides on how to inform the concerned parties about the hearing session in the review phase. EEAA either informs about the meeting by an ad in a local newspaper or by invitations to the convened parties.
Timeline for public comments
The number of (working) days available for the public to make comments on the EIA decision document.
Costs for public
Are there any specified costs public parties will incur if they partake in EIA?(e.g. costs for the receiving report, costs of losing an appeal, etc. Costs associated with travel to meetings or such are not included here)
What options do the public have to provide their comments. Should comments be written, or may they also be verbal? To which agency should they provide their submissions?
Public comments in decision-making
Do the EIA and/or project approval decisions have to be justified on the basis of public participation results? Do legal texts indicate how public participation results should be used and to which decision-making processses they should contribute?
The EIA guidelines give some provisions on how public comments should be used in decision-making. The EIA report has a separate chapter on public participation. It should include the methodologies used, the analysis of the data, methodologies of the proponent to ensure the continuity of the consultation process during the construction and operation phases of the project and commitments of the project owner to improve the surrounding environment and support the neighbouring communities. Also documentation of the public meetings have to be attached to the EIA report.
The guidelines further specify that when EEAA is reviewing the EIA study, it should provide opinion on the extent that the supported objections have been addressed and if scientific response is needed from the proponent. Thus, the results of public participation ought to influence the decision on the review process.
Possibilities for appeal
What are the legal recourse options to challenge EIA decisions are provided for within the legal framework?
Appeal is open to the proponent on the decison taken by EEAA on the EIA. The proponent should make an objection within 30 days to the Permanent Review Committee. This commmittee consists of a representative form the EEAA, the proponent or attorney, a representative of the licensing body, three experts selected as members for three years.
Law no 4. (1994) and executive regulations of law no. 4
Decisions that can be appealed
Which EIA decisions can be appealed?
Law no 4. (1994) and executive regulations of law no. 4 determine that the proponent can appeal against the EIA decision and against the conditions of the licence.
Who can appeal
Who can make an appeal (in other words, has legal standing)?
Only the proponent has a right by the Law no. 4 to appeal.
Annual no. of EIAs
Gives an estimation for the number of full EIAs that are produced annually in this country.
Central EIA database
Is there a central database or library where information on EIAs is kept (i.e. where all EIAs are registered and/or copies are archived). If so, what is kept there and is this information publicly accessible?
The EEAA keeps a register of the applications, the EIA reports, forms, final results of the review process and measures that the project proponent has to take as required by EEAA.
EIA guidelines 2009, describing Article 12 of the Environmental Regulations.
Any EIA practice review studies that have been done (by governmental agencies or others) are listed here. Where relevant, links to studies are included, and the main conclusions of the studies are summarised.
- M. Nakayama & R. Fujikura, 2001. Political Bias and Methodological Failure in Assessing Environmental Impacts of Development Projects: Comparative Analysis of the High Aswan Dam and Calaca Thermal Power Plant Development Projects. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, Volume 3, Number 3, pp. 291-310.
- Ahmad B. & Wood CA, 2002. Comparative evaluation of the EIA systems in Egypt, Turkey and Tunisia. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Volume 22, Number 3, pp. 213-234.
- Abdel Wahaab R., 2003. Sustainable Development and Environmental Impact Assessment in Egypt: Historical Assessment, The Environmentalist, Volume 23, Number 1, pp. 49-70.
- Abul-Azm, A.G., and Hassanein, M., 2004. EIA in the Tourism Sector in Egypt. A paper prepared for the IAIA Annual Conference in Vancouver, Canada – April 2004.
- Betey C.B. & Godfred E., 2013. Environmental Impact Assessment and Sustainable Development in Africa: A critical review. Environment and Natural Resources Research. Vol 3 No. 2, 37-51.
Accreditation of consultants
Is there and accreditation system operational in the country to certify consultants to do EIAs?
Law No. 9 of 2009 makes provisions for the accreditation and registration for practitioners of environmental activities. It promulgates that a supreme committee shall be formed that is responsible for the accreditation.
Professional bodies relevant to EIA practice in the country, such as EIA Associations, Environmental Expert Associations, etc are listed here.
Non-governmental EIA guidance
Lists any EIA manuals and good practice publications (including checklists, case studies) that have been published by parties other than government.
Ongoing training programmes (including professional and academic training) and major training events held in the past (with focus on recent events) are mentioned here.
Capacity Building and Institutional Support for Nature Conservation Sector (NCS): The “Capacity Building and Institutional Support to the Nature Conservation Sector of the MSEA/EEAA” Project (referred to as NCSCB / Nature Conservation Sector Capacity Building Project) is one of the components of the Egyptian-Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP) - Phase II. This project has been designed as part of a fully integrated Protected Area component of the EIECP, which includes also three other projects to support the management of the Wadi el Rayan, Siwa and Elba Protected Areas respectively.
Links to laws/regulation
Any relevant links to laws or regulations are included here.
- Law No. 9 (2009)
- Executive regulations (before amendments)
- EIA guidelines (general and sectoral)
Other relevant links on EIA
Any other relevant links (for example to country specific guidance documents) are included here.
- Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA)
- Egyptian Environmental Affairs Library