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Updated to: 16 February 2015Download as PDF
Country contact on EIA
Contact details for the country contact on EIA.
History of EIA
Brief description of the history of the EIA system in the country, including when it was introduced and any major milestones in its development.
The Constitution of December 1990 placed particular emphasis on environmental protection. In its article 27 it is stipulated that "Every one has a right to a healthy, pleasing and sustainable environment and the duty to protect it. The State is responsible for the protection of the environment." In 1993, an environmental action plan was adopted and in 1995, the Benin Environmental Agency was created for its implementation. Subsequently, the Agency has developed a framework for regulation on EIA and several EIA guides. The environmental law as the enabling law for EIA was issued in 1999. In 2001, the first national EIA procedures have been introduced.
Year of introduction of EIA legislation
NB: this field is only meant for the world map. It is a hidden cell that is not published on the website. If available, mention the year when detailed national EIA regulations were issued. If such regulations do not exist and if EIA practice is base
Legal framework for EIA
Name of first enabling legislation that sets a framework for EIA.
The environmental law no. 98-030 (1999) obligates the initiators of various categories of projects and programmes to conduct an environmental assessment study.
Approving authority of enabling law
Authority that approved the enabling law for EIA.
The environmental law no. 98-030 was approved by the president of the republic as well as by the Minister of Environment and Conservation of Nature (previously the Minister of Environment, Habitat and Town Planning) and the Minister of Justice, Legislation and Human Rights.
Year of introduction of first national detailed regulation for EIA
Year when when the first national detailed regulation (procedural requirements) through which EIA was operationalized.
Decree no 2001-235 lays down the EIA procedures and Decree no 2001-190 describes the public hearing procedure in Benin.
Approving authority of first national detailed regulation for EIA
The authority that approved the first national detailed regulation (procedural requirements) through which EIA was operationalized.
The decree was approved by the president of Benin and several ministers.
Current enabling legislation for EIA
Name of current enabling legislation for EIA and link to it.
Environmental law no. 98-030 (1999).
Current national detailed regulation for EIA
Name of current national detailed regulation for EIA and link to it.
Decree no 2001-235.
Any government issued guidelines on EIA (general, or sectoral) are listed here, as well as the authority that issued each. Describe the legal status of the guidelines.
Decree no 2001-235 requested the formulation of general and specific guidelines for the implementation of EIA which contain instructions. Hence, the following guidelines have been issued on EIA:
- General guidelines for the implementation of EIA (2001).Manual on the procedure to follow for obtaining an certificate of environmental comformity.
Several sectoral guidelines exist for EIA in Benin, e.g.:
- sectoral guidelines for dams and hydroelectric plants;
- sectoral guidelines for pipelines;sectoral guidelines for the management of protected areas and forests management;sectoral guidelines for water supply projects;
- sectoral guidelines for electrification;
- sectoral guidelines for tourist projects;decree 2003-332 on waste management and the disposal of hazardous waste.
Guidelines can be accessed on the website of ABE: http://www.abe.bj/spip.php?rubrique6
Objective of EIA
The objective of EIA as stated in the above described legal basis.
The Decree 235 defines EIA as the procedure that allows to determine the effects that the implementation or execution of a project, plan or program may have on the environment.
The General Guidelines further mention that the EIA study should allow to take the right decisions for the protection of the environment and contain all relevant information in this regard.
Scope of EIA application
Describes which types of activities require EIA (public and/or private activities; national and/or foreign initiated project; or all such projects)
Decree 235 prescribes that any program, plan, activity, installation or development work, which may generate pollution or environmental degradation because of its nature, is subjected to EA.
Exemptions from EIA application
Describes any (groups of) activities identified in the regulation that are exempted from the requirement to do EIA (e.g. military or emergency activities).
The Article 4 of Decret No 2001-235 states that the following activities are not subject to the EIA procedure:
- projects undertaken for domestic or home industry purposes, which do not affect sensitive environments or have no discharges into the environment;
- projects relating to exploration of natural resources and do not involve the building of infrastructures;
- projects which are implemented in response to a national emergency;
- projects which are implemented in response to a situation of emergency declared by the authorities responsible for public safety, projects that have to be executed without delay, projects for the protection of the environment, or for health or public safety.
Institutional setting for EIA
Central EIA authority
Is there a central authority in charge of implementing EIA? Is it independent or linked to a higher body (e.g ministry)? What are its tasks related to EIA?
The Benin Environmental Agency (ABE) is the central EA authority that has the mandate to implement the different stages of the EIA procedure. It reports to the Ministry of Environment and Conservation of Nature (previously the Ministry of Environment, Habitat and Town Planning). However, ABE has corporate status and is financially independent.
Other key (governmental) parties involved in EIA, and their roles
Lists other key parties (e.g. a review commission, knowledge institute) that have a role in many or all EIAs.
The Ministry of Environment and Conservation of Nature (previously the Ministry of Environment, Habitat and Town Planning) provides the legal framework for environmental protection and is responsible for main decision-making during the EIA process.
Decree 2001-095 gave prevision for the creation of environmental cells in the different ministries as an interface between ABE and the project proponents. These cells aim to ensure the integration of the environmental dimensions of project, plans and programmes into the respective sectors and departments. Environmental assessment is thus a key mission of these cells.
The Ministry of Environment further establishs Ad Hoc Committee of Public Hearings. These committees aims to inform stakeholders, particularly those affected by the project. Further, the publication of reports (EIA) will be done through local NGOs and the media.
For the review of the EIA report, Ad Hoc Working Groups are formed.
Mandate for exemption of EIA obligation
Describes if there is a legal mandate for a competent authority to make exemptions of EIA obligation. And if yes, under which conditions (e.g. national security, disasters or no conditions/when deemed necessary).
(De)centralisation of EIA mandates
Describes if EIA mandates are (de)centralised. Vertical decentralization refers to the extent to which the responsibility for EIA processes are delegated by the central government to the provincial or local authorities. Sectoral or horizontal decen
The screening process is decentralized and the responsibility is allocated to the ministries responsible for the respective sector of the project.
Overview EIA procedure
Characterizes the overall EIA procedure. If relevant, interesting aspects of the EIA procedure are mentioned such as: which procedural steps are part of the EIA procedure? How are they linked to each other? Are there different levels of assessment di
The EIA procedure in Benin involves a screeing process, a scoping process, the preparation of a draft EIS and its publication. Then a public hearing to discuss the EIS is held and subsequently the decision on whether a certificate of environmental comformity is issued for the project is taken. Thereafter, follow-up assessments and audits are done. A flowchart produced by ABE and ABPEE gives an overview of the different stages of the EIA process and how they relate to each other.
Important outputs of the EIA process in Benin are: Starting document for screening, ToR, EIA report, public hearing report, technical report as result of review process, environmental conformity certificate.
Screening requirement and authority
Describes if a formal screening decision required, and if so, which authority is responsible for this decision. Is this decision published?
The environmental law states in Article 89 that after the submission of the written notice for screening, the Ministry that is responsible for the environment indicates to the proponent the nature, scope and extent of the study that he must prepare. The law contains no information on whether this decision must be published.
Describes the screening process: steps in screening, the stakeholders involved and outcomes of the process, status of screening advice of different stakeholders, etc. Also describes any prescribed methods for screening. If preliminary EIA's / light EIA's / Initial Environmental Evaluations (IEE) are done in this country and which criteria determine whether a preliminary or a full EIA is requested
At the start of the EIA process, the proponent shall submit a written notice to the Ministry of the Environment, Housing and Urban Affairs requesting the issuance of a environmental compliance certificate for his project. The ABE then verifies if the project is actually subject to the EIA procedure and checks if it is subject to a full EIA or a preliminary EIA and the Ministry responsible for the environment communicates the decision to the proponent.
Decree 2001-235 specifies which acitivies are subject to EIA and which level of assessment is required. Two types of EIAs are prepared: full EIA's and preliminary EIA's. The Appendix 1 of the Decree provides lists of projects that are subject to EIA. Screening thresholds are used to define whether a full or a preliminary EIA is required. Projects whose environmental effects are limited, can easily be limited or can be avoided through the application of mitigation measures, are generally subject to a preliminary EIA. A full EIA has to be done for projects as listed in Annex 1 and for projects subjected to preliminary EIA but involve hazardous areas or environmentally sensitive areas as specified in Appendix 2.
Provision for sensitive areas
Are specific requirements formulated for environmentally sensitive areas? (e.g. no minimum thresholds, full EIA instead of partial EIA)
Projects that involve environmentally sensitive areas as defined in Annex 2 of the Decree no 235 always are subject to a full EIA.
Contents of the starting document
Describes the required content of the starting document (if any) that the proponent should submit to the competent authority for EIA screening. Mentions if the starting document is published.
The environmental law states that the general nature of the activity has to be described in the written notice that supports the screening phase.
Maximum number of (working) days allowed between submission of the starting document and the screening decision.
Is a formal scoping step required as part of the EIA process?
The development of the ToR by the proponent is mentioned in Decree 2001-235.
Describes who carries main responsibility to undertake scoping and what the roles and responsibilities of the involved parties during the process are. Specifically, is there independent formulation and/or review of the scoping document, approval of the scoping document? Are any methods prescribed, e.g. participation, checklists. What guidance is provided?
According to the General guidelines, the proponent develops the ToR on the basis of general and potentially available sectoral EIA guidelines. In case of a lack of competence, the proponent may request support for doing so from the ABE. The proponent then submits the ToR to ABE for approval.
Contents of the scoping document
Explains if there are there specific requirements for the content of the scoping document, and if so, what these are.
Number of (working) days for the decision on approval of the scoping document by the competent authority.
Assessment and reporting
Steps and roles of stakeholders in the assessment and status of the input of the stakeholders. Also sets out methods for assessment of the environmental impacts of the activity, if prescribed, and whether the assessment covers environmental, social, economic and/or transboundary effects.
According to Decree 235, the initiator of the project is fully responsible for the assessment study, but he may be supported by an agency or an independent consultant. The guide states that the general impact study must be designed and prepared using a scientific method in order to identify and assess the impact of the project on the quality of the environment. Once the initiator considers the EIA report to be complete, he submits it to the minister responsible for the environment and demands a environmental conformity certificate.
Contents of the EIA report
Explains what should be contained in the EIA report. Specifies if a potential Environmental Management Plan is part of the EIA report or if it is a separate document that contributes to the EIA process.
The Article 7 of the decree no 2001-235 specifies the content of the EIA report. It should describe the expected environmental impacts of the project and shall include at least the following elements:
- a detailed description of the project, including plans, maps andfigures relevant to understanding the proposed project;
- a detailed and accurate inventory of the initial state of the site,of its natural environment and socio-economic and human development. Especially the elements and natural resources whichare likely to be affected by the project and the use of resources related to it;
- an analysis of foreseeable, direct, indirect and cumulative environmental impacts of the project;
- a comparative analysis of different project alternatives with justifications of the choices made regarding the inclusion of the environment;
- the measures proposed by the proponent to compensate, reduce and if possible eliminate the harmful impacts of the projecton the environment;
- an environmental management plan which includes information on monitoring and follow-up activities during and after the implementation of the project.The environmental management plan is thus directly included in the EIA report. Further, the report must be accompanied by a summary which was prepared separately in order to facilitate its distribution.
The section 4 of the general guidelines provide detailed guidance for writing each of these section of the EIA report and the presentation of the report in general. They additionally required the inclusion of risk management plan for technological accidents. The general guidelines can accessed here: http://www.abe.bj/IMG/pdf/Guide_General.pdf
Overview of the review process, including: steps in the process and roles of the stakeholders, status of the input of the stakeholders. Is the process open to public? Review method: internal review, external review, panel/commission (permanent or temporary), are the review results documented? Are the review criteria general or case by case? Are the review results documented? Is a potential review
After the EIA report is submitted to the Ministry, it is made public. Thereafter, the review process of the EIA report is started. The Guidelines state that ABE conducts the review in consultation with the ministries and other relevant agencies that are involved or interested in the project.
For full EIA's, ABE puts in place ad hoc working groups for the review of each project. The review aims to produce objective arguments regarding the acceptability of the project in terms of the quality of the environment, which will highlight strengths of the project and the drawbacks related to its implementation. ABE also takes into account the report of the public hearing before finalizing its technical advice. ABE then takes a decision on whether the report is acceptable. The results of the review process are presented in a technical report which also contain recommendations for the minister regarding the decision-making process on whether the environmental conformity certifiate should be issued.
Describes if the EIA is checked by external parties, and if so to what extent these represent required disciplines/expertise. Also sets out if measures have been taken to ensure that reviewers are impartial?
Through the publication of the draft report and the formation of specialized working groups for the review, external parties can be involved in the process.
Number of (working) days for review of the EIA by the competent authority.
ABE has 3 months time to review the EIA report after the file has been judged to be complete. Delays are allowed if additional information is needed for the review.
Integration of EIA into decision-making
Describes what kind of decision-making processes the EIA is intended to support. We look specifically at the decision on EIA approval, and how this relates to envirionmental approval for the project, and other project approval decisions (permits) needed before a project can proceed. This category describes which decisions are influenced by EIA and how they are linked to each other.
The environmental law states that if the EIA report is found satisfactory by the minister in charge of the environment, he will issue an environmental conformity certificate. Such a certificate is required before the project is approved by any competent authority.
Describes which authority/authorities is/are responsible for each of the main decision-making processes on EIA (EIA approval, environmental approval and/or project approval). It is explained if those decisions are taken by the same or different authorities.
The minister in charge of the environment is responsible for the decision whether an environmental conformity certificate is issued.
Mentions if the decision (on EIA approval and/or environmental approval) is linked to certain documents (e.g. environmental management plan, permit conditions) in order to facilitate the management of environmental risks during project implementation. Also describes if commitments of the proponent are incorporated into legally binding instruments.
Included in the conditions of the environmental conformity certificate are project characteristics as modified during the EIA process, measures planed for avoiding, mitigating or reducing impacts and the Environmental Management Plan.
Sets out requirements for justification of the consideration of the EIA information in decision-making (on EIA approval, environmental approval and/or project approval).
Does the decision (on EIA approval, environmental approval and/or project approval) have to be published? Also, is the decision justification published as well?
The EIS is published, but the law 89-030 does not require that the environmental conformity certificate or conditions of the project must be published.
Maximum number of (working) days available to the competent authority to make the EIA based decision (EIA approval, environmental clearance and/or project approval).
Article 12 of Decree 235 mentions that once the ABE has found the report to be acceptable or the available amount of time for review is passed, the Ministry has 7 days to take the decision on whether the environmental comformity certificate is issued.
Monitoring, Compliance and Enforcement
Is compliance monitoring required to check if the project is implemented as described in the EIA documents and/or if mitigation of environmental impacts complies with applicable standards and other measures set out in the EIA documents? Who is responsible for ensuring compliance? How does this authority ensure compliance (for example, through inspections)? And what requirements are there for the p
The General Guidelines state that the entire project, both during the construction phases of the operation, must remain under observation in order to ensure that the decision by the minister is respected. Also, the adequacy and effectiveness of implemented mitigation measures has to be checked. The ABE oversees the implementation of the Environmental Management Plan.
The terms of the monitoring program are developed by the developer in collaboration with the ABE and other departments and agencies that are involved in the project implementation. They are included in the Environmental Management Plan that accompanies the environmental conformity certificate.
Are there monitoring requirements that involve external parties, such as citizen monitoring (for example, through a complaints procedure), or third party auditing?
No external monitoring requirements are given in the EIA regulations or guidelines.
Are there penalties that the authority responsible for compliance can apply if environmental conditions are not met? What are these? (for example, fines, suspension of license)
If the conditions of the certificate are not met, the authorization for it can be withdrawn.
Are there any requirements to monitor if the impacts in reality are as they were predicted in the EIA, with the purpose of evaluating the EIA itself and improving future EIA practice?
According to the General Guidelines, follow-up activities involve observing and measuring the nature, intensity and evolution of some impacts over a certain amount of time. This is especially done for those activities for which the EIA study had indicated aspects of risk and uncertainty.
Is the proponent required to pay a fee when applying for an EIA? Is this fee linked to a permitting fee, or separate? If yes, when is this paid and to whom (to the agency that issues the license or to a central agency)?
According to Article 14 of Decree no 235, expenses related to the review of EIA reports are the responsibility of the developer. He has to pay the required amount to the ABE when he submits the draft EIA report for the review. The subsequent Article 15 provides information regarding different amount of fees that can be charged which are based on the monetary value of the project.
Public participation requirements for EIA process stages
Describes for which of the EIA process stages public participation is required.
The public has the possibility to participate in the EIA process during the review stage.
Public participation guidance
Has any guidance on participation been provided?
Decree 2001-190 provides guidance on the organization of public hearings. Furthermore the general guidlines provide detailed information regarding the public hearing procedures in chapter 7.
Access to information
Which of the information that is generated in the EIA process is available to the public? Specifically, which reports and decision statements?
After it was submitted, the EIA report is available to the public. Also, the public hearing report published by the minister.
How can the public receive the information that is publicly available? Are there public announcement on the proceedings? How/where are these published? Is information made available locally? Is information sent on request? etc.
Report data will be disseminated through the media (mainly radio) and by NGOs. The reports are stored at ABE and can be viewed by any person or entity that expresses the need for it. After a public hearing was found to be necessary, an notice is gazetted through the press and a public display in the region that is affected by the project. It provides general information about the planned public hearing. A copy is also given to ABE and to the respective regional authorities.
The public hearing report published by the minister and it also is archived in the ABE and can be accessed by the public there.
Timeline for public comments
The number of (working) days available for the public to make comments on the EIA decision document.
Costs for public
Are there any specified costs public parties will incur if they partake in EIA?(e.g. costs for the receiving report, costs of losing an appeal, etc. Costs associated with travel to meetings or such are not included here)
What options do the public have to provide their comments. Should comments be written, or may they also be verbal? To which agency should they provide their submissions?
The public can demand a public hearing through sending an written request to the minister in charge of the environment. Once this request is accepted and a public hearing takes place, they can express their opinion verbally.
Public comments in decision-making
Do the EIA and/or project approval decisions have to be justified on the basis of public participation results? Do legal texts indicate how public participation results should be used and to which decision-making processses they should contribute?
Possibilities for appeal
What are the legal recourse options to challenge EIA decisions are provided for within the legal framework?
Decisions that can be appealed
Which EIA decisions can be appealed?
Who can appeal
Who can make an appeal (in other words, has legal standing)?
Any EIA practice review studies that have been done (by governmental agencies or others) are listed here. Where relevant, links to studies are included, and the main conclusions of the studies are summarised.
- Capacity strenghtening for environmental assessment in Benin, 2010 Junior Bloh Nignilo Adohinzin · Ling Xu · Jing Du · Fenglin Yang.
- Review of the Application of EIA in selected African countries, Economic Commission for Africa.
- Environmental Assessment Experiences in the ECOWAS region: Case studies and Country profiles, CLEEA 2010.
Accreditation of consultants
Is there and accreditation system operational in the country to certify consultants to do EIAs?
Professional bodies relevant to EIA practice in the country, such as EIA Associations, Environmental Expert Associations, etc are listed here.
Non-governmental EIA guidance
Lists any EIA manuals and good practice publications (including checklists, case studies) that have been published by parties other than government.
Ongoing training programmes (including professional and academic training) and major training events held in the past (with focus on recent events) are mentioned here.
Participation in the CLEIAA-Programme (Capacity Development and Linkages for Environmental Impact Assessment in Africa): http://www.encapafrica.org/cleaa.htm
Links to laws/regulation
Any relevant links to laws or regulations are included here.
- Links to environmental laws and regulations
- Links to Environmental Legislation on website of ABE
- Links to Environmental Legislation on Estis
- Environmental Law 1999
- Decret EIA procedure 2001
Other relevant links on EIA
Any other relevant links (for example to country specific guidance documents) are included here.
- Overview EIA procedure